Good Practices in Construction




SITE PLANNING, DETAILING & EXECUTION PRACTICES

1)             Before starting laying a stone on site, all working drawings must be signed and checked by the PM first and then Sr. Architect / Executive Architect, Chief / Site Engineer, then Chief Architect. This process (of checking and signing) should take less than a week.

The checking must include scrutiny of:

a)      Site plan including levels of plinths, roads, hard paving, soft paving, showing all structures
b)      All engineering drawings.
c)      All services and plumbing drawings.
d)     Detail landscape drawings.
e)      All electrical drawings.
f)       Mark all TBM's, swimming pool deck height, final formation level, SWD haunch level, SWD invert level, plinth levels, stilt parking levels, internal roads and pathway levels.

All temporary structures, i.e. office, crèche, tanks etc should also be on an overlay on this plan

2)             SETBACKS

a)   Minimum 4 mts. where there is no vehicular access
b)   6 mts to 7 mts preference with vehicular access
c)   6 mts turning radius to all the parking places in stilt
d)   Staircase should connect to parking / open space / pool (not to be blocked by another parking)
e)   Distance between two buildings to be half the mean height
f)   Ensure all setbacks are maintained as per approved drawings
g)   Vehicles are to be parked at a discrete distance.

3)             STRUCTURAL COORDINATION:

-        Please ensure that all columns and beams are thick enough for RCC steel reinforcement to get the proper specified concrete cover :
i.e.       Pedestals & footings  � 50 mm
Column                       � 40 mm
Beams                                     � 30 mm
Slabs                            � 20 mm
Pardis                          � 40 mm
           
-        All balconies to have a 10 cm drop from the adjoining habitable room floor
-        All sundecks to have a 20 cm drop from the adjoining habitable room floor



CHECK FOR CONCRETE QUALITY

4)             SLUMP CONE TEST


           

TEST APPARATUS


          

      10 cm. dia. top                        20 cm. dia. Base.                    30 cm. height


With a graduated steel tamping rod of 16 mm dia. & 600 mm long, rounded at one end.

The base plate has a handle.
Slump cone test is used for the determination of consistency of freshly mixed concrete where maximum size of aggregates does not exceed 38 mm.


This is the simplest & most commonly used test for workability.






PROCEDURE FOR SLUMP CONE TEST

STEP 1. 

Clean the mould & rest it on a levelled surface.
Fill the cone with concrete in 4 layers

STEP 2.


Each layer is tamped 25 strokes with the rounded edge of the 16 mm tamping rod.

STEP 3

The final layer is filled an inch extra and then tamped and levelled.


STEP 4 


Lift the cone vertically, so that the concrete is left unsupported.

STEP 5


The Slump is the distance that the centre of the cone top settles.


The workability can be related with the slump as follows for maximum size of aggregates equal to 20 mm:

     
Slump in mm
Workability
0 -12
Very low
12-25
Low
25-50
Medium
50-125
High
125-175
Very high




5)             BULKAGE TEST FOR SAND

The moist sand particles repell each other due to surface tension resulting in an increase in the volume of sand or in other words sand bulks in volume.

STEP 1

Take a 20 litre farma of height 30 cm.

STEP 2


Fill this farma with loose sand without compacting.

STEP 3

         

Level the top surface of the farma.

STEP 4.

             

Empty the sand from this 20 litre farma into another farma of 30 litre.

STEP 5.

          

Fill 20 litre farma with water and fill it with sand from 30 litre farma.

STEP 6.

Empty excess water from 20 litre farma and level the top sand surface.




STEP 7

Take the reading from the farma top to the settled sand.
This reading is to be taken at the four corners of the farma.
The average of these four readings is the sand  settlement reading.


BULKAGE CALCULATION FORMULA

Let 'h' be the total height of the farma.
Let 'x' be the average of the four settlement readings, where each reading denotes the distance from the farma top to the setteled sand level.
Therefore Height of the setteled sand will be y = h-x.

Bulkage =    x /y  X  100
CHECKLIST FOR CONCRETE MATERIAL REQUIREMENT










Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARK/YES  /NO










I
WATER


















A
CLEAN & POTABLE WATER SOURCE





B
pH OF WATER













Ii
AGGREGATES

















A
AGGREGATES ARE UNLOADED ON PLASTIC SHEET




B
PROPER PARTITION IN BETWEEN THE AGGREGATES



C
SAND FINENESS MODULUS






D
ZONE OF SAND







E




F
SILT CONTENT DOES NOT EXCEED 8% BY VOLUME




G
% OF AGGREGATE PASSING 10 mm IS SIEVE




H
MAXIMUM SIZE OF AGGREGATES





I
% OF AGGREGATES PASSING 20 mm IS SIEVE




J
MAXIMUM SIZE OF AGGREGATES















Iii
CEMENT


















A
CEMENT GODOWN HAS A HIGH PLINTH





B
GODOWN HAS TWO DOORS





C
GODOWN IS AIRTIGHT






D
CEMENT IS STOCKED ON A PLATFORM





E
10 BAGS STOCKED IN A HEIGHT.





F
SPACE IS LEFT BETWEEN BAGS AND GODOWN WALLS



G
MONTH, WEEK, YEAR, BATCH VISIBLE ON CEMENT BAGS



H
NO OF HOOKS ON THE BAG






I
AVERAGE WEIGHT OF ANY 5 BAGS (50±1Kg.)




J
NO CEMENT BAG IS MORE THAN 2 WEEKS OLD





                      


 TABLE FOR SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AGGREGATE








DATE




          CHALLAN NO.







D.R.R. NO.

PROJECT














SUPPLIER














SOURCE














HEATED DRY SAMPLE TAKEN = 2000 gm.











Sr.
SIEVE
Wt. Held
Wt. Held
Wt.Pssg
% Pssg
% Held

No.
SIZE

of pure F.A.





mm
gm
gm
gm
%
%

1
40

0




2
20

0




3
10

0




4
4.8






5
2.4






6
1.2






7
0.6






8
0.3






9
0.15







Balance




Σ=


TOTAL








(a)
(b)












Fineness Modulus =
(Σ%held/100)  =













% ABOVE 4.8 mm =
(wt held on Sieve no 1+2+3)
x 100




TOTAL (a)












=



x 100




CHECKLIST FOR CONSTRUCTION ITEMS REQUIRED DURING CONCRETING

i) Measuring boxes (Farmas) sizes in mm.


HEIGHT
BREADTH
LENGTH
VOLUME
QUANTITY

Mm
mm
mm
Litres
No.
A
300
333
200
20
2
B
300
333
250
25
2
C
300
333
300
30
2
D
300
333
350
35
2
E
300
333
400
40
2
F
300
333
450
45
2
G
300
350
165
17.5
2

Heap up of Farmas is not to be allowed � the level of material in the Farma should be flat and level with the top of the Farma sides


ii) Water measures (For controlling water added to the mixer)

a)      4 litre measure with handle.
b)      1 litre measure with handle.  


iii) 100 Kg. 'Country Balance' for weighing cement.


iv) Unloading trays (1500 X 1500 X 100 mm) for concrete, plaster and masonary mixing.






CHECKLIST FOR CONCRETING ITEMS










Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARK  /YES  /NO










A
12 FARMAS OF THE GIVEN SIZES





B
1 LITRE MEASURE WITH HANDLE





C
4 LITRE MEASURE WITH HANDLE





D
UNLOADING TRAY (1500 X 1500 )





E
MIXER COVERED FROM HOPPER TO THE UNLOADING TRAY.



F
OVERHEAD TANK WATER SUPPLY FOR CONCRETE MIXER



G
BARREL NEAR MIXER DRIVER






H
PLUMBING LINE FROM OVERHEAD TANK TO BARREL



I
TAP FOR THE SUPPLY NEAR BARREL





J
PLATFORM FOR BARREL FOR MIXER DRIVER CONVENIENT




FUNCTIONING







K
WALKWAY GHODAS ARE AVAILABLE









CHECKLIST FOR ESSENTIALS OF A CONCRETE MIXER

a)      Mixer drum blades should have the profile of the mixer drum.
b)      The gap between the drum and the first blade should be 30 mm.
c)      Also the gap between the individual blades should be 30 mm
d)     The blade should be 50 mm in width.
e)      Mixer drum size should be of 225 litres. (10/7 mixer)*
f)       Hopper should be of conical shape for easy flow of the materials in the drum.
g)      The mixer drum should run at 18 rotations per minute.
h)      The best mix is achieved when the mixer is run in horizontal position.
i)        The water source for concrete should be clean and potable.
j)        Tank for storing at least 500 litres of water.

* If 10 cft of dry material is loaded 7 cft of wet concrete is obtained.

i) Buttering of the mixer drum.

It is found that during the first load run of the mixer, the mortar gets stuck to the drum, thereby increasing the water requirements so as to maintain the workability.
This will change the water/cement ratio.
Hence for the first load always reduce the coarse aggregates say by around one third, so that  the workability can be achieved without disturbing the water cement ratio.
 
ii) Mixer cover:-

The mixer should always be covered from the hopper loading portion to the unloading tray.


CHECKLIST FOR CONCRETE MIXER










Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARK /YES  /NO










A
MIXER BLADES HAVE THE PROFILE OF THE MIXER DRUM



B
THE GAP BETWEEN DRUM AND FIRST BLADE IS 30 mm



C
GAP BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL BLADES IS 30 mm




D
THE MIXER BLADES HAVE A WIDTH OF 50 mm




E
MIXER DRUM SIZE IS 225 LITRES (10/7) MIXER.




F
MIXER HAS CONICAL SHAPED HOPPER





G
MIXER SPEED IS 18 ROTATIONS PER MINUTE




H
MIXER RUNS IN HORIZONTAL POSITION





I
BUTTERING OF THE MIXER DRUM FOR EVERY





1st LOAD AFTER STOPPAGE

















                II.      REINFORCEMENT DETAILS CHECKLIST

Steel used should be TMT (Thermo Mechanically Treated) with characteristic strength of fy = 415 N/mm2.

i) Cover to the reinforcement

The protection of the steel in concrete against corrosion depends upon an adequate thickness of good quality concrete.

ii) Clear cover is the distance measured from external face of the concrete member to all steel reinforcements, including links (stirrups), head & tail of the binding wire.
Proper cover prevents ingress of water, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Sulphates, Chlorides, which corrode the steel and weaken the structure.

The clear cover to the concrete members is as follows

Footings          50 mm
Columns          40 mm
Beams             30 mm
Slabs                20 mm
Pardis              40 mm (with a minimum pardi width of 175 mm)

Use of Kandas is a must to maintain the above covers.

iii) Kandas (Template)

a)      Beam width Kanda.
      For maintaining the beam width.
b)      Winged cover Kanda.
For maintaining reinforcement cover in the column.
c)      Cover - Vibrator Kanda � For maintaining beam side cover and facilitating vibrator passing.
d)     Bharai Kanda � For maintaining top level of the slabs.

iv) Other checks for reinforcement

The stirrup end should be bent through an angle of 135o 
It should be continued beyond the bend by 10 times the stirrup diameter.





CHECKLIST FOR STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE

a)  MAINTAIN A WATER/ CEMENT RATIO OF 0.5, i.e. use 25 lts of water per bag of cement.   

b) Testing of cube moulds of 150 x 150 x 150 mm

STRENGTHS IN Kg/cm2
Concrete
Grade
Target Strength of
150 mm cube at
3 days in Kg/cm2.
(60 % strength)
Target Strength of
150 mm cube at
7 days in Kg/cm2.
( 77 % strength)
Target Strength of
150 mm cube at
28 days in Kg/cm2.
( 100% strength)
M20
170
218
283
M25
200
256
333



STRENGTHS IN N/mm2
Concrete
Grade
Target Strength of
150 mm cube at
3 days in N/mm2.
(60 % strength)
Target Strength of
150 mm cube at
7 days in N/mm2.
( 77 % strength)
Target Strength of
150 mm cube at
28 days in N/mm2.
( 100% strength)
M20
17.0
21.8
28.3
M25
20.0
25.6
33.3


All the testing cubes should be cast from a single concrete mix batch. (load).

Concrete Strength
Ration of Nominal Mix
Theoretical Consumption per
Minimum Cement Content per cum.
Strength Required in Kg/ cm2 by
3 days
7 days
28 days
M20
1:1.5:3
8.20 bags
6.40 bags
170
218
283
M15
1:2:4
6.40 bags
6.00 bags
140
179
233
M10
1:3:6
4.40 bags
4.40 bags



M7.5
1:4:8
3.40 bags
3.40 bags




     







Note: Cement bags of 50 kg





Item of work
Type
Ratio of Mix
Theoretical consumption
Masonry
Laterite (All Sizes)
1:5
1.90 Bags / Cum
Masonry
Brick 230 thk. and above
1:5
1.46 Bags/ Cum
Masonry
Brick 115 thk. And below
1:5
1.46 Bags/ Cum
Masonry
Concrete Block 200 thk.
1:5
0.60 Bags/ Cum
Masonry
Concrete Block 150 thk.
1:5
0.60 Bags/ Cum
Masonry
Concrete Blocks 100 thk.
1:5
0.60 Bags/ Cum
Plaster for brick masonry
18mm thk. In double coat
1:3 & 1:4
0.255 Bags/ Sqm
--Do--
12mm thk in single coat
1:4
0.155 Bags/ Sqm
For ceilings
8mm thk in single coat
1:3
0.144 Bags/ Sqm
Plaster for Laterite Masonry
18mm thk. In double coat
1:3 & 1:4
0.311 Bags/ Sqm
-- Do--
12 mm thk. in single coat
1:4
0.188 Bags/ Sqm
Drip moulds/ band
Per cum of work
1:4
7.650 Bags/ Cum
Flooring
IPS 50mm thk. Incl. Plaster and neat cement slurry
1:2:4
0.450 Bags/ Sqm


























Note: Cement bag of 50 kg.



FORMWORK REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST

a)      The face of formwork in contact with the concrete should be cleaned and treated with the form release agent (shutter release oil).

b)      All props should be vertical. All propping for staircase, formwork must be vertical also � not slopping. To ensure no slippage use a wedge.

c)      Slab forms (plates) of size 600 X 900 should be spanned in a direction perpendicular to the length of the plate stiffener.

d)     The first prop for the beam bottom should be placed at 230 mm from the face of the column.

e)      A prop should be placed at the centre of the beam bottom. (where the deflection is maximum).

f)       All other beam bottom props should be placed so that the spacing between them does not exceed 600mm c/c.

g)      All the props above 3 meter height should be braced.

h)      All sloping chajja props should be compulsorily braced

i)        Props for the sloping staircase and chajja should be vertical. The connection between the prop top and the staircase sofit is to be achieved with the help of wedge system.



            MINIMUM TIME FOR DESHUTTERING OF FORMWORK

Type of formwork                                        Minimum period before deshuttering            
a)      Vertical formwork to columns ,                         24 hours
       walls, beams        
b)     Sofit formwork (plates or plywood)
      with props for slabs
1)     spanning upto 4.5 m                                        10 days
2)     spanning over 4.5 m                                        14 days
c)      Sofit formwork (plates or plywood)
      with props for beams and arches.
1)     spanning upto 4.5 m                                        14 days
2)     spanning over 4.5 m                                        21 days




CHECKLIST FOR FORMWORK REQUIREMENT










Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARK  /YES  /NO










A
FORMWORK FACE TREATED WITH SHUTTER RELEASE OIL



B
ALL THE PROPS ARE VERTICAL






C
PLATES SPANNED PERPENDICULAR TO THEIR STIFFENERS



D
1st PROP FOR BEAM BOTTOM AT 230 mm FROM COLUMN FACE



E
BEAM BOTTOM PROPS SPACING BETWEEN 60 Cm. 




F
PROPS ABOVE 3 METERS ARE BRACED.





G
ALL SLOPING CHAJJA PROPS BRACED.





H
WEDGE SYSTEM IS USED FOR ALL PROPS UNDER SLOPING SLAB



I
NO COLUMN FORMWORK DESHUTTERED WITHIN 24 HOURS








J
NO SLAB SHUTEERING & FORMWORK DESHUTTERED BEFORE



1
10 DAYS FOR SLABS SPANNING UPTO 4.5 m




2
14 DAYS FOR SLABS SPANNING OVER 4.5 m









K
NO BEAM SHUTEERING & FORMWORK DESHUTTERED BEFORE



1
14 DAYS FOR BEAMS SPANNING UPTO 4.5 m




2
21 DAYS FOR SLABS SPANNING OVER 4.5 m


















CHECKLIST  FOR CURING TIME OF CONCRETE

COMPONENT                              PERIOD                                                          
FOOTING                                            7    DAYS
COLUMN                                          14    DAYS
SLAB                                                  14    DAYS
CHECKLIST FOR CURING REQUIREMENT










Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARK  /YES  /NO










A
CURING FOR FOOTING IS DONE FOR 7 DAYS




B
CURING FOR COLUMN IS DONE FOR 14 DAYS




C
CURING FOR SLAB IS DONE FOR 14 DAYS






























CHECKLIST FOR STORAGE OF CEMENT ON SITE

1)      To stock 500 bags, godown size of 7 x 3 meters is found most suitable. Height should be 2.0 metres to 2.0 metres.
2)      The godown should have a high plinth so as to prevent ground water from entering. Stock cement on a platform and put plastic sheets below.
3)      Do not keep any windows or ventilators for the godown.
4)      The godown should have two doors, so placed that cement can be stocked and removed on First come, First use basis.
5)      The cement godown should be airtight, and should not be left open at any time.
6)      Stack only 10 bags in a height.
7)      Keep sufficient space between the stocked bags and the walls of the godown.




CHECKLIST FOR CEMENT IDENTIFICATION

a)      Always check the manufacturing Week/Month/Year printed on a cement bag before unloading. The cement should be from the current week (or closest) so as to get the maximum strength from the cement used. Cement is found to loose strength with the age.

b)      Weigh cement bags regularly. A tolerance limit of ± 1 Kg. is acceptable.

c)      Check the following with respect to cement :
i) Date of manufacture
ii) Batch no.
iii) Ask for Cement Test Reports from the manufacturer. For this, Acron's Purchase Dept will help you to obtain it.




CHECKLIST FOR STORAGE OF AGGREGATES ON AN SITE

Put plastic sheeting below all the aggregates (fine & coarse) so as to prevent direct contact of the aggregates with the soil below and contamination with mud.

Erect a permanent or temporary partition in between the stocked aggregates.
This will prevent the mixing of the aggregates.



1)             CHECKLIST FOR SAND (FINE AGGREGATES) REQUIREMENT

Fine aggregate � Aggregate most of which passes 4.75 mm I.S. sieve.
Fine aggregate should be river sand
I.S. 383-1970 has specified four distinct zones for fine aggregates.

IS SEIVE
Grading
Zone 1
Grading
Zone 2
Grading
Zone 3
Grading
Zone 4
10 mm
100
100
100
100
4.75 mm
90-100
90-100
90-100
95-100
2.36 mm
60-95
75-100
85-100
95-100
1.18 mm
30-70
55-90
75-100
90-100
600 micron
15-34
35-59
60-79
80-100
300 micron
5-20
8-30
12-40
15-50
150 micron
0-20
0-10
0-10
0-15






COARSEST
SAND


FINEST
SAND

LESS WATER
FOR SAME
WORKABILITY


MORE WATER
FOR SAME
WORKABILITY

SEGREGATION
AND
BLEEDING


HIGH
COHESION
We therefore select a medium sand from   Zone 2, so as to satisfy the two extremes.

Such sand should have Fineness Modulus of 2.6 -2.9.

Fineness Modulus
Above 3.2
2.9 to 3.2
2.6 to 2.9
2.2 to 2.6
Below 2.2
Type of sand
Very coarse
Coarse
Medium
Fine
Very fine

Fine aggregate should be sieved on a square sieve of size 4.75 mm to remove coarser aggregates or impurities.

Fine aggregate should be free from clay lumps, silt, organic and inorganic impurities.

Percentage of clay in fine aggregate should not exceed one percent by weight.

Also percentage of silt (material finer than 75 microns) should not exceed 3 percent by weight.

However silt test can be checked by volume as well as it is much simple and faster and gives an indication of silt in the fine aggregates.

Silt content should not exceed 8% by volume in 3 hours.


2)             CHECKLIST FOR COARSE AGGREGATE REQUIREMENT

Coarse aggregate � Aggregate most of which is retained on 4.75 mm I.S. sieve.

Remedios factors for deciding the maximum size of the aggregate in a given stock.
(Generally used for mix design calculations)

Aggregates passing 10 mm IS.Sieve                 Maximum size of aggregate
0 � 25 %                                                                      20 mm
25-75 %                                                                       15 mm
75-100 %                                                                     10 mm

Aggregates passing 20 mm IS.Sieve                 Maximum size of aggregate
0 � 25 %                                                                      40 mm
25-75 %                                                                       30 mm
75-100 %                                                                     20 mm


As far as possible avoid flaky and elongated aggregates.

The maximum size of the aggregate should not be greater than one fourth of the minimum thickness of the member.

For thin members like pardis the size of the aggregates should be restricted to maximum size of 10 mm.



CHECKLIST FOR PLACING OF CONCRETE

a)      The concreting area should be clean and free from any loose binding wire, nails, wooden pieces, soil etc.

b)      The concreting labourers should walk only on walkway stools (ghoddas), so that the laid steel does not get affected.
Walkway ghoddas should be of 230 mm width and 1500 mm in length

c)      Concrete should not take more than ten minutes from the time it is discharged from the mixer drum to its final placing point.

d)     The person who finally places the concrete into the members should function as a 'MAAL DALNEWALLA' (material placer) and not 'MAAL FEKANEWALLA' (material thrower).

e)      Concrete should not be dropped from a height of more than 1 meter. This will prevent segregation of the mix., which happens when concrete is dropped from a height of more than 1 mt.

f)       Concreting should be done in strips.

g)      The width and length of the strip should be such that the second strip for concreting starts within the setting time of the first strip concrete.

h)      If the concreting strip is not completed within the setting time, (normally 30 minutes) to prevent COLD JOINT use Keep alive (ZINDA RAKHO) procedure.

i)        Zinda Rakho � Place 2 pans of concrete on the setting concrete, and re-vibrate the drying surface, thereby extending the life of the concrete. 

j)        No worker should be allowed to clean the 'ghamela' of its loose material by banging on the slab. A special banging plate be kept for the same.


1)             FORWARD FLOWING METHOD OF CONCRETING

Never put concrete directly over a densely reinforced section. At such a section it is impossible to vibrate and this results in honeycomb.

At a beam column junction, place concrete in the beam (at the junction) and then push the concrete towards the column by vibrating the same.
This prevents mortar from sticking to the column steel and thereby preventing honeycombing.

2)             CONSTRUCTION JOINT

Construction joint is the joint between the hardened concrete and the fresh concrete.

A.    HOW TO MAKE A SLAB CONSTRUCTION JOINT STOPPER ?

Fold an empty cement bag along its width for around 3 to 4 times so that a strip of the bag is formed.

Tie the bag at both the ends in the form of a sausage.

Place such bags along the length of the slab along the construction joint below the bottom bars. Place 'stopper chavis' over the bags. This prevents any slurry or concrete from moving beyond the joint.

Remove the stopper with the bags just before the concrete hardens.

B.     WHAT ABOUT A BEAM STOPPER ?

Cover wooden chavi with empty cement bag.

Insert such chavis, in the beam where the stopper is desired so as to cover the entire width of the beam.

The number of chavis depends on the width of the beam in question.

After the concrete is placed, remove the stopper chavis before the concrete gets hardened.
.
C.     WHAT CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN DURING CONCRETING OF THE CONSTRUCTION JOINT?

Clean the hardened concrete at the joint face.

Remove all the loose material.

Put 'Policemen Grout' over the joint.

Place the fresh concrete at around 300 mm from the hardened concrete and than vibrate the fresh concrete towards the joint.

In case of a slab, let the concrete flow beyond and over the joint by around 50 mm. (To be leveled by the mason at the later stage.) This will guarantee that all the voids are filled and a leak proof joint is obtained.

D.    WHAT IS A POLICEMEN GROUT?

Cement Grout = Cement + Water =  (Glue) with controlled water/cement ratio.
1 litre of cement (loose) weighs 1.2 Kg. approx.. So we require 0.6 litres of water,
for maintaining  a water/cement ratio of 0.5.

For easy understanding,
For every 5 litres of cement add 3 litres of water.

Use 1 litre measure for the same.





CHECKLIST FOR CONCRETE PLACEMENT










Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARK  /YES  /NO










1
CONCRETING IS DONE IN STRIPS





2
FORWARD FLOWING METHOD OF CONCRETING IS USED.













I
CONSTRUCTION JOINT MAKING















A
EMPTY CEMENT BAG FOLDED & IT'S ENDS ARE TIED




B
FOLDED BAG IS LAID BELOW THE BARS





C
STOPPER CHAVIS PLACED ABOVE THE BAGS




D
BAG REMOVED JUST BEFORE THE CONCRETE HARDENS



E
THE CONCRETE AT THE JOINT CLEANED OF ALL LOOSE MATERIAL



F
POLICEMEN GROUT PLACED OVER THE JOINT.




G
FRESH CONCRETE PLACED AT 300 mm FROM HARDENED CONCRETE



H
FRESH CONCRETE VIBRATED TOWARDS THE JOINT




I
AT THE JOINT THE CONCRETE FLOW IS CROSSING THE JOINT BY 50 mm























Ii
BEAM STOPPER

















A
WOODEN CHAVI COVERED WITH EMPTY CEMENT BAG.



B
INSERTED IN THE BEAM WHERE STOPPER IS DESIRED.







PLACING OF CONCRETE IN AN COLUMN CHECKLIST

1)             'CHAI-PAANI SYNDROME'.

If the concrete is dropped from over 1 meter height in a column, it is found that most of the cement mortar gets stuck to the lateral ties (stirrups). We call this the 'CHAI-PAANI SYNDROME'.The concrete that reaches the bottom (devoid of mortar) segregates further as it hits the hardened surface at the bottom.
The result is a weak column.

HOW DO WE AVOID THIS? 'By designing the column formwork with a WINDOW PANEL'

2)             COLUMN FORMWORK WITH A WINDOW PANEL

Generally a window is designed at a height of about 500 mm from the bottom.

Window will help to facilitate concrete placing and compaction and inspection.

To further avoid the Chai Paani Syndrome, in a column, no stirrup should be tied for about 500 mm above the 'Bharai level' of the column.

The gap between the Bharai level' and the stirrup below it should be at least 40 mm.

3)             COLUMN TOPIS

A column with different beam bottom levels should be filled upto the level of the lowest beam bottom.

Column 'TOPIS' (gap between concreted column top and to be concreted beam bottom) should be maintained as much minimum as possible.

More the TOPI height, more difficult is the concreting of the column with the beams and so more chances of honeycombing. 


4)             COLUMN STARTERS

It is found that 100 mm starters are difficult to vibrate. Well concreted column on a weak starter would be a weak column.

A column starter of 200 mm can best solve this problem.


BREAKING OF COLUMN IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED.




CHECKLIST FOR COLUMN STARTER




























Ref. No.



PROJECT





DATE













LOCATION




























COLUMN NO.



DRAWING NO.






















Sr. no.
DESCRIPTION
REMARKS
1
Base of the starter (slab) is cleaned of all loose material




2
Starter formwork is checked for right angles & diagonals.




3
Depth of the starter is checked






4
No Stirrup at the level of filling  (Bharai) level.




5
All gaps (gabhdi) are properly sealed.





6
Concrete is machine mixed only.





7
Starter is properly vibrated.






8
After concreting starter is cleaned of all loose material, binding wires etc.




9
Starter laitance is removed.






10
Clear Cover to the main bar available along all 8 edges
Edge 1

Edge 2







Edge 3

Edge 4







Edge 5

Edge 6







Edge 7

Edge 8

                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                            

CHECKLIST FOR COLUMN CONCRETING










































COLUMN NO.




DATE












Sr. no.
DESCRIPTION
REMARKS
1
Starter is cleaned of all loose material if any.




2
Columns with window system is designed





3
Column dimensions and right angles checked.





4
Shuttering oil is applied






5
Plumb of the column is checked






6
Column formwork at the top is in one plane.





7
Column kanda is put at the top to check cover.




8
No stirrup tied between 500 mm above Bharai level.




9
No stirrup tied between 40mm below Bharai level.




10
All gaps (gabhdi) have been properly filled.





11
Supra for column is ready






12
Bond key inserted at column top.





13
Column laitance is removed






14
Clear Cover to the main bar available along all 8 edges
Edge 1

Edge 2







Edge 3

Edge 4







Edge 5

Edge 6







Edge 7

Edge 8





5)             REMOVAL OF LAITANCE  

Laitance is a thin layer of cement paste with finer fines of fine aggregates, which has no strength and is a pathway for corrosion of the column.

No fresh concrete be laid, without laitance removal.

It can be easily removed with a wire brush.

BOND or SHEAR KEY

Members like footing top, pedestals, and columns should have a bond key.

The bond key guarantees an excellent connection between an old and fresh concrete.

The bond key should have a size of 100 mm x 100 mm and 150 mm depth.

Concrete structure can disintegrate if

a)      concrete is porous � due to high water cement ratio
b)      concrete has honeycombs � due to inadequate vibration and segregation
c)      Improper cold joint � if the joint is concreted after the concrete exceeds the setting time
d)     Poor construction joint � if the end stopper is not properly designed.
e)      Inadequate concrete cover to the reinforcement.

Properties of good concrete.

a)      Concrete should be cohesive � satisfy 'laddoo' test
b)      Concrete should be workable � easy for the labours to work upon
c)      Concrete should satisfy strength parameters � as decided by the Structural Engineer.
d)     Concrete should be durable � depending on the zone of exposure and the structure life expectancy.


CONCRETE MIX DESIGN (CMD) DEFINITION.

It is the technique of CHOOSING (No longer fixed)
The most ECONOMIC proportions (cost important)
Of available materials (No longer specified)
(Cement, Water, Fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, and Admixtures)

To obtain a                  (1) COHESIVE concrete        FA: CA           Ratio
Of the required           (2) WORKABILITY                          A/C                 Ratio
And the specified       (3) STRENGTH                      W/C                 Ratio
And the desired          (4) DURABILITY                  W/C                Ratio


6)             LADDOO TEST FOR CHECKING COHESION

Concrete should not segregate while mixing, transporting, handling or placing. i.e. coarse aggregates particles separating from cement mortar. Also concrete should not be too cohesive (sticky) that it will not slide down a chute or flow when vibrated.
This is checked with the help of a 'Laddo' (ball) test.

When concrete is unloaded, take a handful of concrete and try to make a ball (ladoo).

If the ball does not form at all than it means that the cohesion is very poor and the aggregates are segregating.

If the ball forms, throw it about 15 cm (6 inches) and let it fall on the palm.
If the ball breaks, the cohesion is medium.

If the ball falls from 15 cm (6 inches) but does not break, the cohesion is said to be good. This is the desired state of cohesion.

Next, throw the ball for about 60 cm (2 feet). It should break when it falls back on the palm.
                                       


POUR CARD NO.


SITE: ___________________                                                       

DATE:____________

STRUCTURAL MEMBER(S) *                                  QUANTITY IN CU MT















TOTAL CUBIC METERS                                                                                        

The centering is sound, leak proof, in line, level, & lubricated, slab depth chairs in place,   fit for concreting
-       The bar bending is as per drawings, required cover has been maintained, all bars/rings are in their planned position and have not shifted.
-       Engineer of R.C.C Consultants or his nominee Engr.___________________
-       Has visited the site and given the go ahead on_________________ and his signature has been taken in the Structural Engineer's visit book.
-       All changes recommended by Consultants or his nominees have been implemented.
-       Electrical and other conduits have been properly placed in accordance with ACM. No conduits pass through columns or toilets sunk.
-       Consumables / materials/ equipment /scaffolding/safety equipment/lights/ walkways on slab/ etc. needed for concreting are on site & are of the right quantity and quality.

__________________            __________________            __________________
Construction Manager              Project Manager                         GM (Exec)

Note : 1.  This form will not take  more than 03 (three) minutes to fill 
            2. If you are concreting more than one member please put serial numbers     



YIELD REPORT CORRESPONDING TO POUR CARD

1.     As per Pour Card on reverse, casting was done from_____________hrs to
___________hrs. on ______________________date.

2. The cu mt quantity was_______________________

3.  The brand of cement used was_____________________________________

4.  The no. of bags consumed were__________________________

5.   The yield / cu mt is ____________________________

6.   The no. of vibrators used were _________________________and needle diameter was_______________________

7.  The water cement ratio was_______________________[ on average in lit. / bag ]

8. The Construction Professionals present on site during the entire casting were1)__________________________2)__________________________
3)_________________________________4)_____________________________ 5)_______________________________________________________

9.  Were lights required? Y                   N                  .          

10. Were they provided? Y                    N                 .

11. If not, why? __________________________________________________________________  ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12. Any remarks ____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13.  Any learning's for next time? __________________________________ __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________


_________________            __________________           __________________
Lab Tech/Supervisor        Asst. Construction Manager      Construction Manager

Note :   This form will not take  more than 03 (three) minutes to fill 





CHECKLIST FOR MASONARY

















Ref. No.



PROJECT





DATE













LOCATION




























DRAWING NO.

















Sr.
DESCRIPTION
REMARKS
No.





     Accepted/rejected with clear reasons
1
Type of Masonary



Laterite,clay/fly ash brick,concrete block
2
Masonary width (mm)







3
R.C.C.surfaces touching the masonary are hacked (tacha) at 1 hack per Sq. Inch & properly cleaned.




4
Wetting of bricks / stone/ concrete block before laying




5
Farmas available for mortar proportioning





6
Tray available for mortar mixing






7
Mortar mix proportion (1:5)






8
Sand is screened







9
Mix material is used within 30 minutes.





10
Proper & Safe Scaffolding erected.






11
No scaffolding supports to be inserted in the masonary




12
Masonary Lineout for the entire floor/room is done with a single coarse of masonary.




13
This laid coarse is checked for right angles & Dimensions.




14
Per day masonary height restricted to one meter.




15
R.C.C.(M15) band(100 mm thick)






16
No vertical joints allowed.






17
Joint thickness between 10-12 mm.





18
Masonary plumb on the side of which room?





19
Masonary plumb is checked.






20
Cleaning after day's work.






21
Date of masonary execution painted on the wall.




22
Actual size of openings left in the masonary.


























CHECKED BY




PROJECT ENGINEER











*
Curing is to be carried out for minimum period of 7 days.


*
Further masonary plaster or gypsum to be done only after settlement period of 30 days.
*
Katka & chicken mesh after settlement period.














CHECKLIST FOR INTERNAL PLASTERING                                                                                                                                              

1.       Hacking (tacha) of columns, beams including soffit, ceiling, lofts, etc. in-situ works or precast components shall be checked. Tacha should be one per square inch.   Removal of plastic/oil skin from old concrete surface shall be ensured. Please do the above at the deshuttering stage. Don't wait for the RCC to get so hard at plaster stage.

2.       The line, level and plumb of masonry and door window frames shall be checked.

3.       Proper raking of masonry joints shall be ensured.  Masonry joints shall be inspected for hollowness.  Hollow joints, if any, shall be refilled. 

4.       Fix katka (aggregate) with mortar & chicken mesh at junction of the masonary with concrete surfaces.

5.       Wetting of wall surfaces shall be ensured before starting the plaster by spraying water. The concrete surfaces should be sprayed with cement slurry.

6.       Necessary scaffolding shall be erected as required. No scaffolding member should be inserted directly into the masonary.

7.       Plaster pads, (Thickness Indicators or T.I.) of required thickness (12 mm or as specified) shall be taken on the walls.  The plaster pads shall come within the range of aluminium square tubes which shall be used for maintaining the uniform level of surface of plaster.  T.I. should be taken at least one day before.

8.       Sand to be used for plaster shall be sieved on 4.75 mm sieve.

9.       Dry mixing of mortar of specified mix shall be done on raised platform/steel plates.                  
Wet mixing shall be done thoroughly as and when required.  No centering plate should used as platform for the same. Use of mortar within 30 minutes (before setting time) after adding water shall be ensured.

10.     Use a mix proportion of 1:4 cement � sand mortar.

11.   Plumb, right angle, level of plaster; required size of door/window frames after plaster, plumb and level of door/window jambs, shall be checked.

12.     Mortar splashes on door window frames shall be cleaned & the entire area should be cleaned after day's work is completed.

13.    Plastering shall be cured by watering for 7 days. Please hold the pipe at the top of the plastered component and let the water cascade down. This increases absorption of water and doesn't waste it.




CHECKLIST FOR EXTERNAL PLASTERING                              

1.         Hacking (tacha) of columns, beams including soffit, ceiling, lofts, etc. in-situ works or precast components shall be checked. Tacha should be one per square inch.  Removal of plastic/oil skin from old concrete surface shall be ensured.

2.         The line, level and plumb of masonry and door window frames shall be checked.

3.         Proper raking of masonry joints shall be ensured.  Masonry joints shall be inspected for hollowness.  Hollow joints, if any, shall be refilled. 

4.         Fix katka (aggregate) with mortar & chicken mesh at junction of the masonary with concrete surfaces.

5.         Wetting of wall surfaces shall be ensured before starting the plaster by spraying water. The concrete surfaces should be sprayed with cement slurry.

6.        Necessary scaffolding shall be erected as required. No scaffolding member should be inserted directly into the masonary. Proper bracing of the masonary should be done.

7.              a) Plaster pads, (Thickness Indicators or T.I.) of required thickness (12 mm or as specified) shall be taken on the walls. 
b) The plaster pads shall come within the range of aluminium square tubes which shall be used for maintaining the uniform level of surface of plaster. 
c) T.I. should be taken at least one day before.

8.         Sand to be used for plaster shall be sieved on 4.75 mm sieve.

9.         Dry mixing of mortar of specified mix shall be done on raised platform/steel plates. Wet mixing shall be done thoroughly as and when required.  No centering plate should used as platform for the same. Use of mortar within 30 minutes (before setting time) after adding water shall be ensured.

10.       Plastering shall be carried out in two coats.  The first coat itself shall be in plumb, line and level.

11.      The surface shall be roughened with wire brush immediately after the first coat so as to give a proper bondage with the second coat. The second coat should be of richer mix so as to prevent the porosity from reaching the below plaster & thereafter the masonary.

12.      The second coat should have a minimum thickness of 6 mm. Second coat shall be with specified waterproofing compound for plastering on south-west sides.

13.     Plumb, right angle, level of plaster; required size of door/window frames after plaster, plumb and level of door/window jambs, shall be checked.


14.       Mortar splashes on door window frames shall be cleaned & the entire area should be cleaned after day's work is completed.

15      Plastering shall be cured by watering for 7 days. Please hold the pipe at the top of the plastered component and let the water cascade down. This increases absorption of water and doesn't waste it.



11.       CHECKLIST FOR EXTERNAL PLASTERING

















Ref. No.



PROJECT





DATE













LOCATION



























Sr. No.
DESCRIPTION
REMARKS











First coat or second coat






1
Proper & Safe Scaffolding erected.





2
Base of the scaffolding is on levelled & compacted ground




3
Proper bracings provided wherever required.





4
No scaffolding inserts in the masonary





5
Safety belts & helmets provided






6
30 Days for masonary settlement is sattisfied.




7
Katka & chicken mesh done on the external side




8
R.C.C.surfaces to be plastered are hacked (tacha) at 1 hack per Sq. Inch & properly cleaned.




9
The plaster surface is wetted.






10
Cement slurry sprayed on concrete surfaces for wetting




11
Farma available for mix






12
Tray available for mortar mixing






13
Mortar mix proportion(1:4) for 1st coat & (1:3) for 2nd coat




14
Mix material is used within 30 minutes.





15
RECRON fibres are mixed in the mix.





16
After 1st coat, Horizontal brush lines for bonding with next coat.




17
First coat of 12 mm is checked for line, level, plumb




18
Date of plaster execution painted on the wall.




19
Second coat of 6 mm is checked for line, level, and plumb.




20
Date of plaster execution painted on the wall.




21
Plaster bands are checked for dimensions, line, level, plumb
















CHECKLIST FOR GYPSUM APPLICATION
     

1.             Polythene sheets / gunny bags to be laid on the ground to prevent wastage.

2.             Do not start ANY Gypsum Work if the surface has not been properly hacked  at the rate of 1 hack per sq inch (minimum) duly checked by the Engineer-in-charge.

3.             The wall is first marked vertically at 600 mm centres then checked with straight edge or line (preferably aluminium square tube) to find the high spots which are used as guide for level to be set. If the high spots are too high, this fact must be brought to the notice of the engineer in charge who will order chipping of the high spot or he will have the surface rendered/plastered so that the level may become true. This plastered surface must be cured for at least 10 days before gypsum is applied.

4.             The background should be suitably wetted with a brush 5-10 minutes before plastering to displace the trapped air & for a good plaster contact with the surface.

5.             Four points (by putting plaster with flat surface) are fixed in level & plumb at each corner of the wall to determine the thickness of the plaster required to be done.

6.             40mm wide strips of plaster are fixed. Then the points are applied vertically, in level & plumb of both ends of the wall.

7.             These vertical strips are then made with plaster at even 600 mm centres on the entire area of the wall to ensure level and plumb of the strips to be in line.

8.             Apply plaster to the surface of the wall with trowel to the required thickness & finish the surface setting straight edge (sq tube) horizontally by then placing on the vertical strips already fixed above with firm pressure.

9.             The best results are obtained by applying a thick coat then turning back with the same batch of material to fill out to the required thickness.

10.         A featheredge is used to straighten the plaster to a reasonable plane, whilst at the same time filling in any slacks or hollows when the plaster has stiffened sufficiently. Further ruling of the featheredge is necessary to achieve a flat surface.

11.         As the plaster stiffens progressively, further flattening & paring should be carried out with spatula.

12.         When the plaster is sufficiently formed the surface should be scoured lightly with a sponge float & light application of water, if necessary to raise the flat & bring the surface to a suitable condition of finishing.

13.         Closing in with the trowel should commence as soon as plaster starts to set, followed by a final trowel at the appropriate time.

14.         Do not over polish.

15.         Decoration should be delayed until the plaster work has dried out thoroughly.

16.         a) Ensure that straight ede remains straight and does not bend with the passage of time or rough use.

b) Change the straight edge, if required.

                         



CHECKLIST FOR WATERPROOFING

Process of Work (Stepwise) for application of Hyperplast polymeric waterproofing membrane:

1.      The Bathroom, passage sunks, balconies & open sundecks, etc. where Hyperplas polymeric waterproofing membrane is to be applied has to be thoroughly cleaned with wire brush to eliminate all sharp projections, oil, grease, etc.

2.      The cleaned surface must then be grouted with cement slurry, and a smooth base coat of cement: sand mortar mix 1:5 must be applied over the grouted surface, with proper leveling and smoothening. The surface should be cured for 7 days.

3.      Water based bitumen primer should be applied with brush over the dry smooth base coat. Hyperplas polymeric waterproofing membrane sheets should then be unrolled over the coated surface with overlaps of 10cms.and upto a height of 80cms. along the vertical surface and bonded thoroughly to the coated surface by application of hot blown Bitumen of 85/25 grade with a gas operated torch and the overlaps must then be thermofused by torch application to ensure that joints are leak proof. Care should be taken so that there is no overheating of membrane to prevent complete loss of homogeneity. Also Hyperplas sheets should be checked for cracks, tears, holes or other manufacturing defects before use.

4.      Screed coat of cement: sand mortar mix 1:5 should then be applied over Hyperplas sheets with fixing of chicken mesh using buttons of  Hyperplas  for all vertical surfaces. The surface should be cured for 3 days.

Process of Work (Stepwise) for Bathroom/Passage sunk filling:

1.                  The sunken surface should be cleaned thoroughly.
2.             Provision of a 32mm PVC pipe for water escape outlet should be made just above the screed coat at the center of the sunken surface towards the sloping end.

3.                  All plumbing holes and openings should be sealed water tight.

4.             The sunken portion should then be filled with cement : sand mortar mix 1:5 with rubble stone packing of size 10cms.and water proofing compound Nafufill and all gaps and interstices should be thoroughly filled. The sunk should then be filled with water and cured for 3 days.

5.           A smoothening coat of cement: sand mortar mix 1:5 should then be applied over the filled sunk with the required slope. The smooth surface should then be cured and the sunk should be filled with water for testing for min. 7 days.


CHECKLIST FOR FLOOR TILING

PROCEDURE

1.             The working drawings shall be studied carefully and positions of full tiles and cut tiles shall be decided so as to maintain joints in a straight line.

2.             Before starting tiling, it shall be ensured that all required approved flooring tiles with required design and specifications are available at site.

3.             The floor height shall be checked from slab top/screeding top to ceiling.  Adjustment if any shall be done in mortar below tiles.

4.             Datum level shall be marked on the wall at various places, including door frame. Tile grid must be drawn on the toilet wall to ensure that the taps and fittings are at tile corner and not tile centers.

5.             The top level of tile shall be decided with respect to datum level and mortar level pad shall be taken. Dry mixing of specified mix shall be done on steel plate platform/floor on plastic sheet and wet mixing shall be done thoroughly, as & when required.

6.             The string shall be stretched from mortar pad to mortar pad and mortar of specified mix shall be laid in level.

7.             Tiles shall be wetted before lying.

8.             Cement slurry shall be laid on bed mortar & the tiles of approved brand shall be fixed by tamping gently with wooden mallet.  The fixing of tiles shall be started from one end of the wall.

9.             Tile lines shall be matched between room to passage and room to room as per drawing.

10.         Tiles shall abut the block masonry and no gap shall be left between edge of the tile and the masonry.

11.         After tiles are fixed those shall be checked next day by tamping with small wooden mallet.  If hollowness is noticed tile shall be removed and refixed.

12.         The tile joints shall be filled up with tile grout.

13.         Curing shall be carried out for 7 days.

14.         Required drop shall be provided between dry & wet areas of the bathroom and balcony or sundeck areas, as shown in drawing.  Required slope in toilet to be given towards nahani trap, and in balcony, sundeck areas towards spout.

15.         Put a kadappa threshold and umrapatti below the French doors to prevent water entering and wetting the sand bed. The kadappa threshold should be given a hyperplast covering. An umrapatti may be provided in the sand bed below the tiles as well. In such a case, an umrapatti in coloured granite may be provided at the base of the door to prevent wind and water from entering below the door




CHECKLIST FOR PAINTING DEVELOPMENT

1)                 During painting, adequate precautions be taken so as not to cause any damage/stains to the walls, tiles, and all other finishing items.

2)                 All ladder legs, scaffold bottoms should be padded so that no sharp ends are in contact with the walls, floor tiles etc.

3)                  The entire painting floor area should be covered with cardboard/plastic sheets.

4)                 Any paint drops, brush marks on the floor, glass panes, fittings, etc. should be cleaned immediately.

8)                  The painted surface should be free from paint drops, dabs, brush marks, waves, and there should not be shade variation in colour, texture and finish.

9)        All stages of work should be done under cover of artificial lights i.e. CFL bulbs or Fluoroscent tubes.

10)      At no point, should these hot bulbs/tubes come in contact with doors, shutters, electric switches as it may result in burning/melting .

11)      Adhere strictly to the specified process of work, dilution ratios, drying time for undercoats along with paint manufacturer's recommended best practices at all times.

12)      All the surfaces to be painted should be checked with a moisture meter prior to the commencement of the works.

13)      All paint cans/drums/bags should be delivered sealed to the site and a copy of the challan must be kept with the site engineer. The sealed cans must be opened in the presence of the site engineer and all empty cans/drums/bags of paint used on site must be handed over to the site engineer after consumption for proper reconciliation.

This has to be done in order to check the chances of theft & also to keep a check on the coverage of the paint so that any excess dilution of the paint is checked. Such a check would also help in following the paint manufacturer's processes and mixes in a more stringent manner.

Paint cans do not leave the site till the work is entirely complete.


        
CHECKLIST FOR CARPENTARY WORKS

1.      The wood for carpentary works has to be chosen with care.

2.      The wood should be free from knots, marks or blemishes.

3.      It should be straight, not bent.

4.      If at all any wood with marks is used, the marks should face on the exterior side of the apartment.

5.      Randha (planing) for the wood should be done with proper care. Randha should be done with a stable hand.

6.      The wood is cut to the perfect size with all sides joined at a perfect right angle.

7.      The fabricated grills are inserted properly in the wooden frames.

8.      The window shutters are fixed to the frame and the whole assembly is than fixed in position.

9.      Two coats of Black Japan are applied at the face of the frame (the face which touches the masonary) as anti termite treatment.       

10.  The tower bolts must be fixed in plumb. All the tower bolts must be of 
     equal size.

11.  All screws must be fitted with screw driver and no hammering is allowed. The screw driver must be used at right angle to the screw.

12.  All screw heads must be fixed smoothly in the countersunk.

13.  All carpenters to work in 'Jodis' (pairs) with one senior experienced carpenter working with a new inexperienced carpenter.

14.  No carpentary tools should be placed directly on tiles. A proper cardboard should be placed below the tools and the wood being worked on.



CHECKLIST FOR EXECUTION OF PIPED GAS WORK  

 

1.   MATERIAL AND DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS


a.              The pipes used in the complex should be Mild Steel (ERW-C Class-ISI 1239) Manufactured by Tata / Jindal / Zenith 

15mm (1/2") dia. pipe Outer dia. 21.8mm - 21.0 mm minimum, Wall thickness 3.25 mm, Weight of pipe -1.45 kg/m
25 mm (1") dia. Pipe outer dia. 34.2 mm to 33.3 mm minimum, Wall thickness 4.05 mm weight of pipe - 2.97 kg/m

b.             Copper pipes inside kitchen should be manufactured by Hindustan Copper / Nissan Copper. (IS 2501)


c.              All Gas Meters, Gas Regulators, Auto Change Over, First Stage Regulators, Second stage regulators & Ball Valves should be of Comap, (Italy / France Make)


d.             Pigtails (Suraksha Make), Non Return Valve (Gesso Make), Pressure Gauge (Hitec / Dynamic)


e.              System designed should have uniform pressure in the hot plate in all the flats at all the times, even when all are on at the same time.

          Please ensure weight of pipe for 1m length of pipe.

2.   CIVIL WORKS


a.      Excavation of trenches Minimum 3ft depth. There should be minimum 1ft difference between the under ground gas pipe and any other service lines ie: (drainage lines, water supply lines, electric cable etc) to avoid any damages to the pipe line, also to avoid crossing. In short under ground gas pipe line should be at the lower most level with respect to service lines.


b.       Compact the excavated trench bed using a Dumas before laying PCC

c.       Lay PCC (1:3:6) at the base of the under ground pipe min 5cms as support base for pipes throughout the length of the trench.

d.      CONTRACTOR TO COMPLETE ITEM C 1 TO C5.

e.      After contractor finishes the above items, multiplast strip of 2mm thickness and as per required width should be fused on entire circumference of the pipes. Put GI wire at every 50cms so that multiplast does not rotate around the pipe.

f.       CONTRACTOR TO COMPLETE ITEM C 7

g.       After contractor finishes the above items encase the pipe with PCC (1:3:6) from all sides minimum 8cms thickness using simple form work to create a box like protection PCC layer.

h.       Cover soft mud minimum 20cms above the pipe and lay indication/ guidance tiles made of Shahabad / kadappa / broken tiles etc.) and later cover the remaining trench with excavated mud with proper compaction

i.        Drilling of hole in the granite platform in kitchen.

j.        Core cutting wherever required.



3.   WORKS by the CONTRACTOR


a.       Vertical pipes should be in plumb, properly clamped to wall & painted with one coat anti corrosive paint and two coats of enamel paint (Yellow colour)

b.       After welding /joining of under ground pipes is completed apply one coat of zinc chromate primer.

c.       Test all under ground and vertical lines with Nitrogen gas at 6 kg/cm2 pressure by closing open ends of by means of valves or dead flanges.

d.      Observe for any leakage at welded joints of pipe, and fittings by bubble test method ie: Make powder soap water (recommended for powder soap used for automatic washing machines). Apply it over the welded pipe joints and fitting joints with help of Brush or cloth soaked in soap water. If there is leakage you will observe bubbles of soap water at the welded area.

e.       After the leakage test is completed as per satisfaction of Acron Engineer's in charge apply two coats of HB black/ coal tar.

g.       After the multiplast strip fusing is completed wrap the pipe with polythene sheet strips over multiplast. Thickness of polythene sheet should minimum 100 micron or same thickness of polythene as used below PCC for ground floor apartments.




CHECKLIST FOR ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS

INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS (ISS)

1.0    All work covered by these specifications has to be carried out as per specifications contained in the relevant Indian Standard Specifications and Code of Practice (both latest editions).  However, wherever specifications drawn up for this Contract specifically differ from those of the relevant ISS, then the Contract specifications take precedence over those of ISS.

Some of the relevant ISS are reproduced below: 
13947  -           Circuit breakers.
3043    -           Earthing.
2705    -           Current transformers.
3427    -           Metal enclosed switchgear above 1000V but not exceeding 11KV.
4770    -           Rubber gloves for electric purposes.
5216    -           Guides for safety procedures & practice in electrical works.
9224    -           HRC fuses.
8623    -           Factory assembled switchboards.
8828    -           Miniature circuit breakers.
2834    -           Power capacitors.
2713    -           Steel tubular poles.
  732    -           Code of practice for electrical wiring installations.
2309    -           Code of practice for lightning protection.
SP30    -           National electrical code.
1554    -           Cables, PVC insulated.
7098    -           Cables, XLPE insulated.
  694    -           PVC insulated cables for working voltages up to & including 1100V.
  692    -           PILC insulated cables.
  375    -           Marking & arrangement for switchgear bus bars, main and auxiliary 
                     wiring.

  The following is a list of many of the things that need to be decided when you are in the planning stages of your new home.  Keep in mind this list is by no means complete.  It is intended to start you thinking about what you are going to want in your new house.

Exterior:
         Landscape lighting
         Yard light
         Motion sensors
         Recessed lighting above deck/porch
         Ceiling fan above deck/porch
         Wall Scones?
         Outside receptacles?


Bedrooms:
         Ceiling fans?  With or without lights?
         Switched receptacles?
         TV, telephone or internet service?

Living areas:
         Ceiling fans?  With or without lights?
         Recessed lights?
         Switched receptacles?
         TV, telephone or internet service?
         Entertainment center?
         Fireplace?

Are you going to have a bar?
         Are there special needs in this area?  Refrigerator?
         Wine cooler?

Kitchen

         Are appliances gas or electric?
         Under cabinet lighting?
         Any lighting on top of upper cabinets?
         Or any lighting inside the cabinets?
         Waste Disposer?  Dishwasher?  Trash compactor?
         Recessed lights?
         Is the refrigerator a 'built-in?'
         Are you planning an island?
         Is there going to be an appliance 'garage?'
         Is the plumber installing an instant hot water dispenser?
         Are you planning any unusual appliances, such as a bread warming
         Drawer or wine chiller?  Or a dedicated appliance cabinet?

Other options to consider:
         Are you installing a fire suppression (sprinkler) system?
         Are you planning any under-tile floor heat?
         Is an electronic air cleaner being installed in the furnace?
         Are you having a hot tub or spa?  If so, what are the electrical requirements?
         Is there a whirlpool in any of the bathrooms?  If so, do any have an internal water heater?
         What kind of air system are you installing?  Conventional forced-air gas or Geo-thermal?
         Do you need a security system?  Does it need to be monitored?
         Are you installing a back-up generator?  What will you need to have it operate?
         Do you want receptacles near the roof edge controlled by a timer for holiday lighting?
         Are you going to have a central vacuum?
         Have you heard about whole-house surge protection?
         Which lights do you want on dimmers?
         Is the garage heated?
         Is the clothes dryer gas or electric?
         Where do you need telephone, TV and internet connections?
         Are you going with satellite TV or cable?
         Have you considered an intercom system?
         Are you installing conventional garage door operators or the new
         'I-drive' type?
         Are you having an office?  What do you need for power, phone,
         Fax & internet services?
         Do you need a dedicated circuit for a freezer?
         Are you having a built-in ironing board?
         Do you want lights in the closets?

Other necessary information needed:
         Do your floor plans have the correct door swings shown?
         Do you have a complete set of detailed plans for all your cabinets?
         This includes all kitchen, bar and bathroom layouts, as well as
         the layout of any walk-in closets.



LANDSCAPING CHECKLIST

Whether you buy a new home with a garden that looks like a moonscape or an existing home with a yard that is just not to your liking, Landscaping can help you turn it into your small paradise. There are a few things that you want to do first; here is a checklist for getting started:

         What type of soil do you have?

         Do you need topsoil?

         Does your soil need to be tilled in or aerated?

         Is the grade correct, is it sloping away from the house to prevent drainage problems?

         Are you in need of walls, what kind?

         Are you in need of extra dirt?

         Do you need drain tile?

         Do you have trees that you want to keep or taken out?

         Do you like gardening? Or would you like an almost maintenance free yard?

         Is there enough sunlight?

         What are the measurements of your yard?

         Do you have a lot survey from your builder?

         Would you like to create extra room to sit, like a patio or deck?

         What type of patio would you like?

         Is there room for heavy machinery to enter your yard, you'll need this when you need some extra grading done or sod needs to be dropped.

         Are there any specific trees that need to be planted in the neighborhood that you live in? Or are there trees that are prohibited from being planted in your town.

         Would you like a sprinkler system?


CHECKLIST FOR PLUMBING

WATER METER:- Read the water meter number before and after an eight hour interval when no water was used.


BATH TUB & SHOWER:- Check faucets drains and handles for leak; walls for moisture, water stain and soft spots.


TOILET:-Flush the toilet to check for leakage around base. heck for slow drainage, check for soft spots.

FAUCETS:- Check for dripping faucets and leaks around the handles. Turn off hot water faucet abruptly and listen for a hammer or vibration.

WATER HEATER:- Check first four digit of the serial number (MM/YY) to indicate age of water heater. Search for rusted or corroded parts such as the ventilation shaft.

BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE:- Check for leaks around joints. sInspect plumbing for quality of workmanship.





CHECKLIST FOR SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE

1.           Safety Shoes/Gumboots shall be worn by the staff working at site and concerned workers.

2.           Safety Helmets shall be worn by people working in areas like pits, trenches, near the building & by carpenters, fitters, erectors, fabricators, with the chin strap properly tied up while working on the construction site.

3.           Safety belt shall be worn by erectors, fabricators, painters, masons, while working. It should be tied properly to a rigid anchoring point

4.           Clothing of the Workers / Supervisors / Engineers should not be loose fitting to avoid mishaps.

5.           Any person on top of scaffolding must make sure at first that the scaffolding is properly secured by bracings etc. and is safe.  Any plank put on the scaffolding for bridging the gap must be tied properly to the pipe either by binding wire or a good coir string so that the plank will not tilt when the person comes to one end. 

6.           Safe and sufficient access for every work place shall be provided and maintained; to the extent it is practical.

7.           Openings, corners and edges shall be guarded so as to prevent accidents due to falling.

8.           Adequate and suitable lighting shall be provided for all working places, approaches, dangerous openings and places.

9.           Sanitary conveniences shall be provided, maintained and kept clean. ST's to be emptied regularly.

10.       First Aid-boxes (with prescribed medical aids) reasonably accessible at all times shall be kept in convenient places like office, stores, etc.

11.       Acron Children Care shall be provided for the children of workers at site.

12.       Welder shall ensure that protective equipment like welding Helmets/Hand shields, eye goggles, leather gloves etc. is used during welding.

13.       Construction materials shall not be stacked on the floors more than the allowable loads.

14.       No workman shall be allowed to ride on the lift bucket/component which is being lifted.

15.       Jointing of cables should be done with proper lugs and joints shall be covered with insulating tape.

16.       Protective gloves shall be used in electrical operations involving high voltage.

17.       Cautionary signs and boards shall be displayed at required locations for infrastructure projects.

18.       Fire fighting equipments such as extinguishers and sand buckets shall be easily available in the vicinity of electrical operations and storage of inflammable materials.  Their validity and test dates should be verified and corrective action should be taken.

19.       Special attention shall be given for proper earthing of cables and equipment. 

20.       Important safe working methods shall be explained to/imbibed in the juniors who are working at the site during training.

21.       Safety nets of Nylon as per requirement shall be provided at different floors as per the requirement.

22.       Barricading by red / white ribbon (Danger tape) shall be carried out all around the excavated pits, tank holes, danger area etc. to avoid the accident.
        
23.       Any accident of serious nature (fatal, partial disability etc.) shall be investigated by site authorities and report shall be compiled and corrective/preventive actions shall be taken to avoid recurrence.

24.      


 
To facilitate better communication, following details should be prominently displayed in the site office       
            Site plan indicating Water lines, Water tanks, Septic tanks, Electrical lines, Fire extinguishers locations, Switch board room locations etc.
            List of site managers with their telephone numbers.
            Telephone Numbers of Hospitals, Fire service and Police etc.
   
25.       Ensure that the health cards are issued to all the personnel on site.

26.       Ensure that all the labours on site are provided with mosquito nets.

27.       Hot tar should be handled carefully. It should be in a metal bucket with not more than 4" (10 cms) of tar in the bucket so that it does not splash out and burn someone.
In no circumstances are tar buckets to be carried on the head or shoulder of the workers.
                              



CHECKLIST FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY

1.    "Disaster" means a progressive or sudden, widespread or localised, natural or human-caused occurrence which �
(a)    causes or threatens to cause �
         (i)    death, injury or disease;
         (ii)   damage to property, infrastructure or the environment; or
         (iii)  disruption of a community; and
           (b)   is of a magnitude that exceeds the ability of those affected by the disaster to cope with its effects using only their own resources

2.    "Disaster management" means a continuous and integrated multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary  process of planning, and implementation of measures, aimed at �
(a)        preventing  or reducing the risk of disasters;
           (b)         mitigating the severity or consequences of disasters;
           (c)         emergency preparedness;
           (d)        a  rapid and effective response to disasters;  and
           (e)         post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation

3.   Disaster Management therefore refers to programs and measures designed to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from the effects of all disasters.

4.      As disaster is very closely associated with work on sites, therefore it is absolutely imperative to have a feasible and the most workable disaster management policy.

5.    Incase of a disaster of any nature the following actions will immediately be taken by all persons who have not been affected by the disaster and are in normal mental and physical condition.

6.    Immediately inform the Directors and the following in the HR and Administration department and give a quick description of the disaster and the nature of damage to human life and property:   
                 
7.    Incase unable to contact any of the above, contact any other person of Acron who can immediately assist.      

8    Quickly analyze and prioritize the next course of action and the type of assistance required from various helpline agencies like-
       
Police            -         100  
            Fire Brigade    -       101 
            Ambulance      -       102 
            Emergency Dept. of the nearest Govt. / Private hospitals

9    The senior most appointment will without any delay take all emergency actions like-

                 - Quickly assess the situation and categorize the casualties into-

                        -  Lying casualties      - Very serious casualties
                        -  Sitting casualties     - Serious casualties
                        -  Walking casualties - Not so serious casualties
                        -  Dazed casualties     - Shocked casualties

10    Organize evacuation of the casualty /all casualties by the quickest mode of transport keeping in view the nature of casualties.

11    Vehicles will be hired if no other transport is available for evacuation.

12    While the transport is being arranged, First Aid will be rendered to the injured.

13    Organize groups to look out for more casualties.           

14    Brief the helpline agencies once they arrive at the site timely rescue and evacuation actions.

15    Endeavour to  furnish personal details of all casualties to the helpline authorities if asked for  as well as the HR and Admin dept..

16    Organize complete rescue and evacuation actions.

17    Follow up the movement of casualties to various hospital locations

18   ALL PMs / SEs /ASEs MUST TAKE INDEPENDENT AND     
 QUICK   DECISIONS IN ALL SUCH EVENTUALITIES. 

19    REMEMBER EVER SECOND COUNTS. YOUR DECISION MAY  
 COST OR SAVE A VALUABLE LIFE.                
                                                                                        



CHECKLIST FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS
(Based on the recommendations of the  Industry Standard for Precast and  Tilt-up Concrete for Buildings, 2001)

                                                                                                                            
1.  Are those involved in the manufacturing of precast panels trained in current procedures and quality control processes?
Training should cover the recommendations in the Industry
Standard; in particular, Parts 5 and 6:
• manufacturing (including formwork, casting sequences,
reinforcement, lifting inserts, concrete placement,
concrete strength, curing, release and inspection), and
• handling and storage.

2. Are panels manufactured
and handled safely?
• There must be a safe system of work.
• Employees must be provided with the information
instruction, training and supervision necessary to perform
their work safely.
• A risk control plan should be developed to manage 
ongoing hazards and risks.

3. Are the shop drawings
(design documentation)
completed for each panel?

Shop drawings should identify each panel to be cast and
should specify:
• Weight and dimensions of panels,
• Reinforcement,
• Location of inserts,
• Braces, bracing inserts and fixings, and
• Concrete strengths at lifting and in-service.

4. Is information provided on
rigging, lifting, transport and 
storage for each panel?
One method of providing this information would be to
incorporate it in the shop drawings.

5.  Is there a project/erection
design engineer's certificate of
compliance provided for each
type of panel? 

Use a format similar to that in Appendix C of the Industry
Standard for each type of panel. This certifies that the
structural design of the panel is in accordance with the
Industry Standard and can resist forces to which it will be
subjected during handling, transportation and erection.
6. Have all structural
components in the panel been
inspected by a competent
person prior to casting?

The inspection should include:
• A check for the identification number of the panel,
• Confirmation of panel size,
• Verification that all structural components, including
reinforcement, inserts and cast-in plates, comply with
shop drawings.  

7. Is each inspection
documented?
Each inspection should be documented, signed off and kept
on file.

8.  Is a manufacturer's
certificate of compliance
provided for every panel?

Use a format similar to that in Appendix D of the Industry
Standard for each type of panel. This certifies that the panel
type has been manufactured in accordance with the shop
drawings and records the identification number and casting
date of each element. (Multiple elements may be covered on
a single certificate).
9. Has the concrete been
correctly tested to ensure its
strength is as specified in the
shop drawings?

Test concrete supplies to ensure that the strength required 
for lifting, transport and erection is as specified in the design
documentation. Cylinder testing is the recommended method.
Curing of cylinders should reflect yard conditions.  
Results of testing need to be documented and kept on file.
10.  Are panels stored in an
area with a hard, level surface
and with adequate drainage?

When stacking vertically:
• Racking systems/frames need to be checked by an
engineer, and
• Design must prevent progressive collapse.
When stacking horizontally: 
• Support points must be directly above each other and at
designated points,
• Stacked height must not be more than twice the width of
the panels, and
Storage area should be isolated from heavy traffic.

                                                                                                                            


FIRE FIGHTING CHECKLIST













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