Soil Stabilisation using Lime

            Stabilization in a broad sense incorporates the various methods employed for modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance.  Stabilization is being used for a variety of engineering works, the most common application being in the construction of road and airfield pavements, where the main objective is to increase the strength or stability of soil and to reduce the construction cost by making best use of locally available materials.

Principles Of Stabilization:

            Natural soil is both a complex and variable material.  Yet because of its universal availability and its low cost winning it offers great opportunities for skilful use as an engineering material.

            Not uncommonly, however the soil at any particular locality is unsuited, wholly or partially, to the requirements of the construction engineer.  A basic decision must therefore be made whether to:
  • Accept the site material as it is and design to standards sufficient to meet the restrictions imposed by its existing quality.
  • Remove the site material and replace with a superior material.
  • Alter the properties of existing soil so as to create a new site material capable of better meeting the requirements of the task in hand.

The latter choice, the alteration of soil properties to meet specific engineering requirements is known as "Soil stabilization."

It must also be recognized that stabilization not necessarily a magic wand by which every soil property is changed for the better.  Correct usage demands a clear recognition of which soil properties must be upgraded, and this specific engineering requirement is an important element in the decision whether or not to stabilize.  Properties of soil may be altered in many ways, among which are included chemical, thermal, mechanical and other means.

The chief properties of a soil with which the construction engineer is concerned are: volume stability, strength, permeability, and durability.
Methods of stabilization may be grouped under two main types:
  1. modification or improvement of a soil property of the existing soil without any admixture.
  2. Modification of the properties with the help of admixtures.

Compaction and drainage are the examples of the first type, which improve the inherent shear strength of soil.
Examples of the second type are: mechanical stabilization, stabilization with cement, lime, bitumen and chemicals etc,.

LIME STABILIZATION:

          Stabilization of soils with hydrated lime is applicable to far heavier clayey soils and is less suitable for granular materials and second it is used more widely as a construction expedient that is to prepare a soil for further treatment or to render a sufficient improvement to support construction traffic.  As a temporary measure such modification or stabilization need not necessarily affected to the standards required for permanent construction.  Quick lime or lime slurries may also be used for excessively wet or dry conditions respectively.  It is therefore a very versatile stabilizer.

         In roads lime stabilization is widely used for sub-base construction or sub grade improvement; nevertheless there is no sound reason why these roles should not be interchangeable.

MATERIALS:

          The materials to be considered are lime, soil and water and it is important that the type of lime to be used is clearly defined.  It is unfortunate that the term "lime" is used to describe calcium hydroxide (agricultural lime) calcium hydroxide (slaked lime or hydrated lime) and calcium oxide (quick lime).  The term is used here and in general engineering practice to mean hydrated lime.

LIME:

          Calcium hydroxide is most widely used for stabilization.  The stabilizing effects ultimately depend on chemical attack by the lime on clay minerals in the soil to form cementitius compounds (calcium silicate) and carbonate doesn't do this. Lime is prepared by heating calcium carbonate (natural limestone) in kilns until carbon dioxide is driven off.  The calcium oxide discharged from the kiln is known as "Quick lime" and because of lumpy condition and high heat of hydration, which makes it difficult to handle and store, particularly in humid climates it is usual slake the quick lime immediately forming hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) as very fine powder.  It is important to note that the hydration process involves a large reduction in density and this expansion is the basis of deep stabilization techniques using lime piles.  Hydrated lime poses much less of a storage problem as it is no longer so susceptible to humidity: but both forms will revert to carbonate on prolonged exposure to air. The mean particle size is about 1/10th that of cement.  On addition of lime to soil two main types of chemical reaction occur:

<![if !supportLists]>·         <![endif]>Alteration in the nature of the absorbed layer through base exchange phenomenon and
<![if !supportLists]>·         <![endif]>Cementing or puzzolanic action.

Lime reduces the plasticity index of highly plastic soils making them more friable and easy to be handled and pulvarised.  The plasticity index of soils of low plasticity generally increase in the optimum water content and a decrease in the maximum compacted density, but the strength and durability increases.

          The amount of lime required may be used on the unconfined compressive strength or the CBR test criteria.  Normally 2 to 8% of lime may be required for coarse grained soils and 5 to 10% for plastic soils.


SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIME



         Property
                                     Lime

          Quick lime
               (Cao)
       Hydrated lime
           (Ca(OH)2)

Calcium and magnesium oxides
Carbon dioxides-at kiln
                    -elsewhere

Fineness


Not less than 92 percent

Not more than 3 percent
Not more than 10 percent

Not less than 95 percent

Not more than 5 percent
Not more than 7 percent

Not more than 12 percent on 180*180
Cement standard sieve.




Construction Sequence for Lime Stabilized Bases:

  1. Shaping the Sub-grade and scarifying the soil.
  2. pulvarising the soil.
  3. Adding and mixing lime.
  4. Compacting.
  5. Finishing
  6. Curing.
  7. Adding wearing surfacing

There are three methods for carrying out these operations:

  • Mix in place method
  • Traveling plant
  • Stationary plant method.

Mix in place method:
In this method, the subgrade is first shaped to the required grade and is cleared of undesirable materials.  It is then scarified to the required depth of treatment and the soil is pulvarised until atleast 80% of the material (excluding stones) passes a 4.75mm sieve.  If another soil is to be blended, it is mixed with the loose, pulvarised soil.  The pulvarised soil is spread and shaped to proper grade.  Calculated amount of lime is then evenly distributed over the surface and intimately mixed.  Water is added as required for compaction and the soil lime water is turned into an intimate mixture.  No strict time limitation for completion of job is however necessary since soil lime cementation reactions and are slow.  It is fairly easy to process coarse grained soil.  Adding lime in proportions of1 to 4% can facilitate Pulvarisation and mixing of plastic clays.

            Mix in place method is considered cheaper and more adaptable to different field conditions, but the processing of soil is not so thorough and accurate as with other methods.


Traveling Plant method:

In this method, the pulvarised soil is heaped into a window and the lime is spread on the top.  An elevator to a mixer carried on a traveling platform where water is added and mixing is done lifts the soil and lime.  The mixture is then discharged on to the subgrade.  It is spread with a grader and compacted.  A uniform subgrade surface with controlled depth of treatment is possible.  The plant is however costly.

Soil Stabilisation


Stationary plant method:
In this method, the excavated soil is brought to a stationary mixing plant.  At the plant lime and water are added and mixed with the soil.  The mixture is then transported back to the desired location, dumped, spread and compacted.  Similar to traveling method, the method affords an accurate proportioning of materials and thorough mixing.  The method is slower and may prove expensive due to additional haulage of soil.


MIX DESIGN:

            The mix design procedures start from an estimate of the likely lime requirement followed by detailed tests as necessary for the particular circumstances.  These should be based on a knowledge of the appropriate properties, mechanisms criteria etc. as described below.

Properties:

            The properties of lime-stabilized soils vary in a similar manner to that found with cement-stabilized soils.  The differences lie mainly in the effect of additive content, the effect of time and the effect of temperature.

The unconfined compressive strength of soil lime mixtures increase with increasing lime content to a certain level usually about 8% for clay soils.  The rate of increase then diminishes until no further strength gain occurs with increasing lime content: in contrast to cement stabilization where the increase in strength continues to quite high cement contents (20%) (Fig 5.1).  Because with lime soil mixtures there is no rapid cementation akin to the setting of concrete the effect of delay in compaction is far less important with lime stabilization (fig 5.2) and indeed, an enhanced stabilizing effect may be obtained by leaving the material loose or by breaking up lightly compacted material and recompacting after 24-hours delay.  Because there is, in general no urgency for compaction, the process of lime stabilization is more flexible in the field.  However it was pointed out that where a rapid increase in optimum moisture content occurs as a result of lime stabilization "it may be more economical to compact quickly than to add extra water".


The gain in strength with time of a compacted soil-lime mixture broadly follows the pattern for soil-cement mixtures (fig 5.3) but the effect of temperature is more marked.  The more rapid gain in strength with increasing temperature may be one reason for the widespread use of lime in warmer climates.


Lime has an almost instantaneous effect in most cases on the plasticity of a clay(fig 5.4) and therefore upon the strength.  Figure 5.5 shows a four-fold increase in strength after six minutes for clay mixed with lime: by contrast the change in strength with cement is delayed until the initial hydration set takes place.  Lime improves texture, rendering a clay more workable, so much so that lime stabilization is often used for this purpose alone in clayey soils as a preliminary to shaping and compaction or to cement stabilization without regard to any possible strength increase in the compacted state.

Reaction Mechanism

            Lime reacts with the clay minerals of the soil, or with any other fine, pozzolanic component such as hydrous silica, to form a tough water-insoluble gel of calcium silicate, which cements the soil particles.  The cementing agent is thus exactly the same as for ordinary Portland cement, the difference being that with the latter the calcium silicate gel is formed from hydration of anhydrous calcium silicate (cement) whereas with the lime the gel is formed only after attack on and removal of silica from the clay minerals of the soil.  The with contrast cement stabilization is that the latter is essentially independent of soil type: as illustrated by fig 5.6 which shows the rate of gain of strength for cement stabilized soils is different for each soil type.

            The silicate gel proceeds immediately to coat and to bind clay lumps in the soil and to block off the soil pores in the manner shown by fig 5.7.  In time, this gel gradually crystallizes into well defined calcium silicate hydrates such as tobermorite and hillebrandite, the microcrystals of which can also interlock mechanically.  Note that reaction proceeds only whilst water is present and able to carry calcium and hydroxyl ions to the clay surface (i.e. whilst pH is still high).  The reaction thus ceases on drying, and very dry soils will not react with lime. (Or cement).
            The mechanism of the reaction can be represented thus:

NAS4H  +  CH  ---à NH  +  CAS4 H  --à NS  +  degradation product

Where S = Sio2 H =  H2O  A  =   Al2O3  C = CaO  N  =  Na2O


Criteria:

            The criteria developed for soils treate with lime fall into two broad groups as does the usage of the material.  Where the lime treatment aimed at "modifying" the soil properties by reducing plasticity improving workability increasing grain size etc.. The lime treatment is aimed at permanent and substantial "stabilization" of a soil then the criteria are based on strength bearing capacity etc..
            Lime modification of soil has been used for three main purposes: to reduce the plasticity of an otherwise acceptable mechanically stable material to improve the workability of a soil and its resistance to deflocculation and erosion and to produce a rapid increase in strength in wet clay soil as a construction expedient.  Criteria are not always available to measure the adequacy of the treatment.  For the first named purpose the liquid and plastic limit and plasticity index are determined with varying amounts of lime added to the soil until the normal plasticity requirements for an untreated material are met.  In most cases there would be in addition an increase in UCS and bearing capacity but this is not usually taken into account.

            The procedure for evaluating the effectiveness by plasticity changes may be misleading, however, in kaolinitic or illitic soils where only small and slow changes in plasticity index occur.  For these soils a better procedure is to adopt a strength test.
  

SUGGESTED CRITERIA FOR SOIL-LIME

Process
Purpose
Requirement
Lime "modification"
Improvement of access on wet site.
Improvement of workability and pulvarization.
Large increase in plastic limit. Rapid increase in bearing strength.
Large and rapid decrease in plasticity increase in proportion passing 3/16 in. sieve.
Lime "stabilization"
Improvement of subgrade material.
Improvement of base material.
Increase in bearing capacity
Decrease in swell
Decrease in plasticity
Increase in strength or bearing capacity (min CBR 880).

SUGGESTED LIME CONTENTS

Soil Type
Content for modification
Content for Stabilization
Fine crushed rock
Well graded clay gravels
Sands
Sandy clay
Silty clay
Heavy clay
Very heavy clay
Organic soils
2-4 percent
1-3 percent

Not recommended
Not recommended
1-3 percent
1-3 percent
1-3 percent
not recommended
Not recommended
~3 percent

Not recommended
~ 5 percent
2-4 percent
3-8 percent
3-8 percent
not recommended


Design Procedure:

            Mix design therefore, consists of adding varying amounts of lime to the soil and observing the effect, after a suitable curing period. on the plasticity, aggregations, strength or bearing capacity, when a suitable additive level may be determined.  A useful guide is to allow 1 percent of lime (by weight of dry soil) for each 10 percent of clay in the soil.  For closer determination, two samples prepared at _+- 2 percent of this lime content will usually reveal the optimum economic percentage.  While the changes in plasticity are accepted fairly readily, there is, unfortunately, a conservative attitude to the improvements in strength, bearing capacity and stress-strain behavior.


Summary:

            Addition of lime to a soil with inadequate mechanical stability will improve strength, bearing capacity and resistance to water softening.  In clay soils, lime will often cause rapid changes in plasticity and this in effect will "dry out" the soil.  This is the basis of the use of lime stabilization as a construction expedient or for pre-treatment prior to cement stabilization.  Lime stabilization is in general more tolerant of construction delay than cement stabilization and more suitable for clay soils.
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Vastu Shashtra - A Scientific Approach


Vastu Shastra (also Vastu Veda and vastuvidya, "science of construction", "architecture") is an ancient doctrine which consists of precepts born out of a traditional view on how the laws of nature affect human dwellings. The designs are based on directional alignments. It used to be applied in Hindu architecture, especially for Hindu temples, and covers other domains, including vehicles, vessels, furniture, sculpture, paintings etc. The foundation of Vastu is traditionally ascribed to the sage Maamuni Mayan (Mahaa-muni Maya, a daanava/demon reformed by tapasyaa/austerities) in South India, and Vishvakarman in North India.

When this science was developed, the basic structure of buildings was significantly different. The outside of the Vastu not only builds the exterior shield of the Vastu, but it also regulates the entry and the absorption of energies.

          The openings in the exterior such as doors… windows… and skylights…manage the entry, and… the material of the roof and walls…While the colors and finishes of exterior surfaces control the absorption of hip the energies. The extensions such as…the porch, balcony, sheds, and canopies…are also considered parts of the building and…to some extent they also regulate the flow of energies.

         When this science was developed there were no multi-story houses, Interior furniture and articles, color and finishes, utilities and architecture of the house were totally different. We can't apply majority of the instructions of this science as is condition.

          We still need to study the concept and the basic principles so we can then apply them to the houses of current age. We need to understand the flow of various energies and how we can utilize them to the necessity of our present life style…as per geography of the location and of the house.



"This science is complete in itself. Happiness to the whole world it can bring,
All the four benefits it bestows on you,
Rightful living, money, fulfillment of desires and bliss,
Are all available in this world itself"
Viswakarma in Vastu Shastra


Vastu is a logical explanation of scientific truths and facts. The Vastu Principles are related with the properties (Natural Energies) of our Mother Earth. . It simply says that the sources of energies are to be open and the flow of energies is not to be disturbed. Vastu Shastra prescribes desirable characteristics for sites and buildings based on flow of energy ('Prana' in Sanskrit). Many of the rules are attributed to cosmological considerations; the Sun's path, the rotation of the Earth, magnetic field, etc. The morning Sun is considered especially beneficial and purifying and hence the East is a treasured direction.
Vastu believes that there are essentially two types of forces, which are equal and opposite in nature. The interaction of these two forces is cosmic ordained and produces a third type of force, which is called 'Bio-Force' or 'Prana', needed for life to exist. One type of force is subtle and fine. The other is dark and dense. We, for understanding this subject, can call the first one as 'positive' and the other as 'negative'. 'Prana' is liberated by the interaction of these forces. Over the surface of the globe, these forces continuously interact, releasing bio-energy. When a structure is built over the surface of the Earth, it comes in the way of a natural interaction. Both the forces enter the structure where the interaction continues. However, the intensity of forces that enter the structure need not be the same. Depending on various factors like levels, water bodies, door placement etc.

If the structure is designed in a manner that the positive forces override the negative forces then there is a beneficial release of bio-energy, which helps all the inmates to be healthy.
Even after such reaction with the negative forces, a positive cosmic surplus is always present in such a structure, which is the 'Supreme Being Himself'. In such an atmosphere, life is smooth and happy with everything in life coming your way without any great struggle. It is a happy and healthy life for all the inhabitants.
If on the other hand the structure is built in such a way that the negative forces override the positive then you have a weak bio-energy field which manifests as diseases in the occupants.
The over bearing negative field makes your actions, efforts, thinking negative so that ultimately the whole life is ruined. The science of Vastu guides you about the rules you have to follow so that the structure has a positive atmosphere.
By strictly following these Vastu Rules, Human Race can gain quite many benefits and live peacefully. In other words, Vastu rules instruct the ways to create buildings and 'Living in Harmony with the Earth'.

  

History

Delving into history, we find that Vastu developed during the period of 6000 BC and 3000 BC (Ferguson, Havell and Cunningham) and was handed over by ancient architects through word of mouth or hand-written monographs. Vastu is an old reference to many people. Often many people ask: what is Vastu? Where is it? Can anyone show any proof? Vastu is like a magnetic effect and there are no known methods to prove it exists. It can only be proved and shown through examples and the experience of the people who have followed Vastu. Extensive research done worldwide by numerous Vastu scholars has established it as a science.

Ramayana
References to Vastu Shastra have been found in the great Indian epic 'Ramayana' also. The construction of the holy city of Ayodhya, the capital of the kingdom of Lord Rama, shared a similarity with the plan written in the great architectural text 'Manasara'. Even the 'Ramsetu' of 'Ramayana' was based on Vastu principles.

Mahabharata
Even the 'Maya Sabha' of the Mahabharata was built according to the ancient principles of Vastu Shastra. It is believed that it was built as per Vastu Shastra by the great sculpture called 'Mayan' and was square in shape.


Buddhism
Buddhist literature also makes numerous mentions of buildings based on Vastu. There is a mention of various 'viharas', temples, houses, buildings in the various Buddhist texts, based on Vastu.
Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
Excavations in the ancient cultures at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa also indicate the influence of Vastu on the Indus Valley Civilization, which shows some specific following in construction and planning. They followed certain basic rules in these cultures and very much similar and comparable with the Vastu Shastra of Indian origin.

Vedic Vastu Shastra
The word "VASTU " has been derived from ' VASTOSHPATI ' used in 'Rig Veda' (one of four Vedas –sacred 'shlokas' in Hinduism) and is meant to provide protection, happiness and prosperity in this life as well as after death.
This following 'shloka' in Rig Veda says: 'Rig Veda' Script

"VASTSHPART PRATI JATI HACHASMAN TVAVESHO ATBHIVO BHAVATAH,
YAT TVAMEH PRATI NATRO JUSHSVSHAN NO BHAV DVIPAD SHA CHATUSHPADE"

Meaning:   "Oh God of structures and building, we are your devotees. Listen our prayer, make us free of disease, give wealth and prosperity, and help the well-being of all persons and animals living in the house. These houses were free from obstructions and had big compounds with great walls."'

Matsya Purana
In the 'Matsya Purana', following eighteen scholars of Vastu Shastra have been mentioned. They are Bhrugu, Atri, Vasistar, Viswakarma, Mayan, Naradar, Nagnajit, Visalakshan, Purandaran, Brahma, Kumaraswamy, Nandikesawaran, Sounakar, Bhargavar, Vasudevar, Anirudhar, Sukran and Brahaspati.
Ancient Books about Vastu Shastra
Even though many ancient books are available, they contain information and formulae for constructing palaces and temples only. May be during those days these rules were not followed for small houses or not reachable to common peoples. Many such important principles and 'Shastra' were kept as secret and provided only for the kings and ministers in ancient times.

Indian architecture
The science of Vastu is considered an integral part of the Indian architecture. This science developed during the period of 6000 BC and 3000 BC as mentioned earlier. Being a technical subject, it was confined only to the architects and handed over verbally or in the form of hand-written monographs. The principles of construction, architecture and sculpture, as enunciated in the treatises on temple architecture, have been incorporated in the science of Vastu. From ancient literature, we gather that Vastu was treated as the science of construction of temples and royal palaces.
Brihadsamhitha
This book was written during 'Guptha' kingdom by Varahamihira. This great work has hundred and six chapters, about all subjects of human life. 'Vastu Vidya' comes as the 53rd chapter of this book and it is one of the largest chapters. It describes formulae for the construction of bungalows, palaces, art works, etc.
Viswakarma Vastu Shastra
This book was written by Viswakarma and period is unknown. It contains lot of calculations and formulae for constructing palaces, temples, and sculptures according to Vastu Shastra.
Samarankana Sutradhara
A king named Bhojan during 11th century wrote this book. It describes various methods of architecture, engravings, construction methods of temples and paintings.
Silparatnam
This book is supposed to have been written during 15th century.

Aparajithai Britcha
This book was written during 12th century and may be later to the book 'Samarankana Sutradhara'. It describes Vastu Shastra principles and formulae as a question and answer type. The discussion is between Viswakarma and his daughter Aparajithai.

Manushyalaya Chandrika
Thirumangalathu Neelakandan Moose wrote this book in AD 16th century. The precious volume contains the scientific principles of Vastu construction of houses.

Tantra Samuchayam
Chennaas Narayanan Namboothiripad wrote this book in AD 15th century. The renowned volume specifies the implementation of Vastu in Temple constructions.

Jayabritcha
This was written in olden days in South India and explains Vastu principles to be followed in building houses.

Mayamata
Mayan wrote this book in AD 11th century. It is an inevitable reference to Temple construction, building of houses and ascertainment of plots.
Manasaram
It contains only the voluminous descriptions of Vastu Vidya calculations.

Viswakarma Prakashika
Viswakarma, the 'Deva Shilpi' (Principal Architect of Gods), wrote this book. The period is unknown and it describes lot of formulae for the construction of temples and sculpture, and explains principles of living.

Silparatnam
These are writings on interior decorations of Temples by Sreekumaran.
Few other great ancient books based on Vastu Shastra are Brahmana Manjari, Vasturaja Vallabham, Vishnu Dharmottara Puranam, Mandana Sutradhar, Rajasimha Vastu, Deeparnava and Kashyapa Shilpa.


WORKING PRINCIPLES OF VASTU

Magnetic Poles in our Body
Human body itself acts as a magnet with the head, the heaviest and important part of the body, as the North Pole. If the head is directed towards the North while sleeping, the North Pole of the Earth and that of the Human Body repel each other affecting the blood circulation, causing disturbed sleep, tension and other connected problems.
It is well-established fact that nervous system of the human body communicates with the help of electric impulses, thus producing electro-magnetic field around the part of the body. Muscles also produce electrical potential. Activities of human body are primarily controlled by the electrical and chemical reactions inside the body. Any movement of charge, howsoever small, will produce electrical field around the direction of movement.
Again any surrounding magnetic field will, thus have an effect on the electrical activities of parts of human body. Thus, the entire Human body is the net result of these tiny magnetic fields distributed within the human body, which is equivalent to a magnet matching the size of a human body. The heaviest and important part of the body (i.e. 'Head') behave as North Pole because 'Head' is the most powerful source of electric and magnetic fields in the organism and also that in the eye the magnetic field induction, is significantly higher than other parts of the body. Bedrooms should therefore, be designed keeping this in mind.



Source of Energy
Energy is primarily considered as emanating from the North-East corner and many site and building characteristics are derived from this. Sites sloping down towards North or East from higher levels of South and West are considered good. Open spaces in site and openings in the building are to be more in the North and East than in the South and the West. No obstacles are to be present in the North and the East. 

Levels and Heights
Levels and height of buildings are to be higher in the South and West when compared to the North and East. The South-West corner is to be the highest, followed by South-East, then by North-West and finally by North-East. 
The triangle formed by joining the South-West, South-East and the North-West corner of the site is attributed to the Moon and the triangle formed by joining the North-East, North-West and South-East corner of the site is attributed to the Sun.  
The former are prescribed to be heavier and higher and the latter lighter and lower. Sites having a longer East-West axis are considered better. The diagonal connecting South-West and North-East is to be longer than the diagonal connecting South-East and North-West. An extended North-East corner is considered beneficial.




Vastu Shastra is based upon two important scientific facts:
1. Magnetic Property of the Earth and the gravitational and magnetic forces created by the materials inside the Earth.
2. Rotation of the Earth on its axis, and the centrifugal and other forces created by its movements.

1. Magnetic Property of the Earth:
Our Mother Earth was created from the minerals and dust from the lava of Sun 4.54 million years ago. Due to the large content of iron particles present in the form of solid and molten state in our Earth, it has a magnificent magnetic property. The North Pole emits the positive magnetic energy and the South Pole performs the Negative part receiving this energy. Hence, our Earth is surrounded by a magnetic field all over its mass.
Magnetic field

If we break a small magnet into pieces, each part will get its own North and South poles and start acting as an individual magnet. Similarly, when the Earth is divided into small parts as an individual property, every division will attain a magnetic field having its own North and South Pole. As the buildings are constructed with the materials containing iron particles as well, this magnetic effect is further magnified. Vastu Shastra applies certain principles to gain from this magnetic force.
  2. Rotation of the Earth:
Earth
The main logic behind almost all the rules of Vastu Shastra depends on these principles: We are traveling along with the Earth with all our belongings towards North-East direction constantly at a speed of 1070 miles or 1670 kilometers per hour. The forward direction is North-East due to the inclination of the Earth. The division of the Earth, constructions buildings and utilization of the buildings shall not be against this motion.
This is the theory applied in the Vastu Rules.
Our Earth is rotating inclined about 23.5 degrees towards North-East direction and rotates on its own axis without any rest since more than 4.54 billion years and also rotates the Sun without any axles, bearings or motors. The weight we keep in our place should not hinder its movement. Therefore, keep heavy weight in South-West and lower weight in North-East corner. Balance the South-East and North-West corners with medium weight.
          The Earth is rotating and rolling towards the North-East direction, hence keeping heavy weight at that direction would strain its moment. Vastu Shastra divides a place mainly into nine parts aligning with the directions:  North, East, South, West, North-East Corner, South-East Corner, South-West Corner, North-West Corner and the Center.
 NINE DIVISIONS OF A LAND:
North, North- East Corner, East and the center are the places in the Forward direction of the Movement (like the handle bar of a motorbike). Keeping any heavy weight in these places will obstruct the movement and create discomforts. Avoiding heavy weight in these areas, make the life peaceful and prosperous.

South, West and South-West Corners form the rear side of the movement. Keeping maximum weight at these places will make the travel comfortable and 'In Harmony with the Earth/Nature'. Acquiring wealth and safe keeping them is the important factor of life. For creating the free flow of finance and saving money, keeping heavy weight in a building in these areas are important.

North-West and South-East Corners are the two sides (Left and Right) of the motion. We can keep lightweight in these places and balance the movement. North-West Corner denotes the social status and the South-East Corner improves the health. By keeping balanced weight in these places improves the status and wealth of family members.

Modern Scientific Research on Human Brain Sensitivity to Orientation in Space; Scientific Evidence in favor of VASTU Principles:
Recent research in modern science has now confirmed the ancient understanding that our brain is sensitive to orientation, position, and direction in space. Scientists can now measure very accurately how well the brain is functioning under different conditions.
This research shows that the firing rate of specific neurons in the thalamus changes in proportion to both the angular velocity and the direction in which the head moves. The scientists conclude that the brain can keep up with the absolute direction in which the head is pointing as the subject moves from place to place. Likewise, neurons in the hippocampus are found to be sensitive to position (with reference to direction) in space. When one is facing East, the brain physiology functions differently than facing North, South, or West.


The conclusion is that the power of thoughts and the quality of thoughts is influenced by the direction one is facing. One's sense of direction gets confused in daily life when one lives in a building with wrong orientation, not built according to Vastu Shastra, resulting in potential physiological, psychological and behavioral imbalances of all kinds and strain.
This alteration influences every aspect of brain functioning and the entire physiology. This natural tendency of the brain to function with reference to direction is what Vastu advocates to take into account when designing living structures. It says that the entrance to a sound Vastu structure faces because this direction has the very desirable influences of enlightenment, affluence and fulfillment. The other three cardinal directions also have their corresponding influences. The West direction for example has the influence of poverty and lack of vitality and creativity. The North direction has the influence of prosperity and happiness and the South direction has the influence of negativity, problems and suffering.


THE LOGIC BEHIND THE POSITIONING OF DIFFERENT ROOMS ACCORDING TO THE VASTU
The Sun emits two types of rays; Ultra-Violate and Infra-Red. These rays have various effects on the human body and environment. This is one of the basic principal of the Vastu Shastra. Because of the importance of sunlight to humans, the main aim of Vastu Shastra is to ensure that the inmates of a house are inadvertently exposed to the useful rays of sunlight, even if they are inside the house the whole day. However, during a day, people perform different activities in different rooms at different times and the Sun's position keeps changing from sunrise to sunset. So to ensure that the inmates are exposed to sunlight constantly, each room should be positioned so that it faces the Sun at the time of the day when it is most likely to be used.
The 24 hours of 1 solar day are divided into eight parts, which are associated with the eight cardinal directions. In each of these eight periods, the Sun is positioned in one of the cardinal directions. Therefore, the room which is most likely to be used during that period is located in this direction. This is explained here:
Pooja Room or meditation room in the North-East: The Reasoning:
The period between 3am and 6am, just before sunrise is called 'Brahma Mathura'. At this time, the Sun is in the North-Eastern part of the house. These hours are ideal for Yoga, meditation, or study as it is very quiet and peaceful. Therefore, the North-East corner is the best position for      the 'Pooja' room or prayer/ meditation room.
Bathroom, doors/windows in the East: The Reasoning;
From 6am to 7.30am, the Sun is in the eastern part of the house. This is the time for bathing and preparing for the day, so east is a good location for a bathroom used for bathing purposes only. In addition, there should be many openings and no obstructions in the East.
Kitchen in the South-East: The Reasoning
 The time between 7.30am to 9am, when the Sun is in the South-East part of the house, is the best time for preparing food to be eaten later in the day. The Sun emits more ultra-violet rays in the morning hours than any other time of the day, which have good effect on human body and the environment surrounding him. These rays have tendency to kill bacteria. This is way the kitchen is preferred in eastern side. It is also good to have morning rays fall on our eye and which is why the kitchen platform should be oriented towards eastern side so that while cooking food ultra-violet rays will enter the eyes. Therefore, the kitchen can be located here, as the UV rays of the Sun will keep the kitchen counter free from germs that spoil the food.

Bedroom, Office, Storeroom in the South: The Reasoning
The period between 9am and noon is the time for work. The Sun is now in the South, and hence this is the best position for an office and a bedroom. By noon, the intensity of the heat is high and so the South is ideal for store rooms which need to be moisture proof.

Master bedroom, Wardrobes in the South-West: The Reasoning 
After lunch it is time for rest, so the time between noon and 3 pm is called Vishranti, the resting period. The Sun is now in the South-West section of the house and so it is the ideal location for a Master bedroom and the wardrobes should be kept on the west wall to reduce the heat.
Children's bedroom, study room, in the West:  Reasoning 
The period between 3pm and 6pm is the time for children to study. The Sun is in the West and this is the best location for a children's bedroom or study room. Since the West gets very heated up, it is beneficial to have less used rooms like restrooms/toilets, which serve as buffers to the heat.

Second bedroom, dining room in the North-West: The Reasoning
Generally, the time between 6pm and 9pm, when the Sun is in the North-West part of the house, is the time for eating, relaxing and sleeping. Therefore, this direction is good for another bedroom and dining room.
                             
Safe, Living room in the North: The Reasoning
The time between midnight and 3 am, when the Sun is in the Northern section, is the time of darkness and secrecy. The North is therefore the best place to hide valuables and to keep them protected.

NO to Swimming Pool/ Water Bodies in South-West
The Sun emits more infra-red rays during evening hours which are harmful. Water bodies placed at South-West corners are therefore, not desirable the reflected Infra-Red rays from the water body in this direction enter the house and have adverse effect on human body.
 
IMPLEMENTATION OF VASTU:

Vastu Shastra says that if the structure of your house is so designed that the positive forces override the negative forces then there is a beneficial release of bio-energy, which helps you and your family members to live a happy and healthy life. A positive cosmic field prevails in a Vastulogically constructed house, where the atmosphere is congenial for a smooth and happy life. Contrary to this, if the same structure is built in a manner that the negative forces override the positive, the overbearing negative field makes your actions, efforts and thoughts negative. Herein come the benefits of Vastu, which guides you to have a positive atmosphere at home, office, industry or any structure.

1. VASTU FOR HOUSES:
 Vastu helps convert the hidden cosmic energies into material benefits for the residents of the Vastu charged homes. It creates a positive energy field for those living there to ensure Physical, Material and Spiritual Well-being. 
VASTU HELPS CONVERT A HOUSE INTO A HOME.

2. VASTU FOR OFFICES:
 Application of Vastu is of exceedingly importance for offices where proper flow of finance is required. Vastu helps in making the environment conducive to Growth with the help of balancing the five elements of nature namely, Water, Fire, Air, Space and Earth. Simple changes such as sitting arrangements of Staff, C.E.O, Proper placement of Safe, Use of proper color, and proper placement of water bodies (bathroom, Water Coolers etc) go a long way in enhancing the business. 
VASTU HELPS THE BUSINESS RUN EFFICIENTLY AND MAKES IT CONDUCIVE TO GROWTH.
3. VASTU FOR FACTORIES:
 All factories require huge investments and have multi-tasking activities taking place simultaneously namely, Raw material Purchasing, Manufacturing, Assembling, Packaging, Accounting, Transportation of Goods etc. and more importantly taking care of Human Resources (labor related issues) Proper Vastu helps in co-coordinating these activities thereby generating growth for the investors.  ·
Factory Designed as per Vastu help in getting in more investments and attracts more business ·
explains how to get the most of your Factory by proper placement of machinery. ·
Also continues and proper electricity is the essential, Vastu gives the proper placement of electrical structures. ·
Vastu can be applied to Factories to improve the moral of the work force and avoid Labor problems, which has in return increased the productivity.

4. VASTU FOR REAL ESTATE & BUILDERS (CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES): 

Construction of Buildings require huge investments and have multi-tasking activities taking place simultaneously namely, Land Acquisition , Raw material Purchasing, Architecture and Planning , Accounting, Liaising with Government Department,  Selling of houses and shops  etc. and more importantly taking care of Human Resources (labor related issues) Proper Vastu helps in co-coordinating these activities thereby generating growth for the investors.  ·


Buildings designed as per Vastu help in getting more investors and therefore sell faster. ·
Vastu helps you select the right plot for construction, thus avoiding problems later.
Simple techniques like proper placement of the main gate helps in a long way to generate positive energy thus leading to the building getting sold off quickly. ·      
   Buildings which lay stagnant and do not sell fast, can be 'energized', Vastu can be used to sell those buildings fast. ·
Vastu explains how to get the most profits out of building by channelizing positive energy with the help proper construction formulae as per Vastu. ·        
Vastu can be applied to improve the moral of the work force and avoid labor problems, which has in return increased the productivity.














TYPICAL LAYOUT OF RESIDENCE WITH VASTU COMPLIANT






CONCLUSION:
  • There is vast need of Vastu science as the mega cities, and the developing towns are  being flooded with concrete jungle of small and big multistoried buildings
  • Vastu-Science is not a magic It is entirely scientific and has been developed on natural and technical rules for the welfare of the human society.
  • Practice of " Vastu Shastra" or "Vastu" in short which had been developed in ancient India is spreading like wild fire now-a-days, past few years have witnessed a mushrooming of popular lectures, books and web sites on this holistic discipline of architectural principles.
  • Vastu Shastra affirm that a house constructed according to the norms and guidelines of this Vedic science, helps allay the tensions and minimize the  chances of familial conflicts , stresses , social pressures, and sickness, etc.
  • We can't apply majority of the instructions of this science as is condition, but… we still need to study the concept and the basic principles so we can then apply them to the houses of current age.
  • The person of any origin, religion and nationality can take advantage of this science without any restriction or limitation.
  • Most of the people already use them as it can be understood by common sense but…common sense is not always enough Therefore one should undertake Vastu-science seriously and use it.
  • According to sources, Mukesh Ambani and his wife Neeta are firm believers in Vastu. Their residences, offices and other properties are all Vastu compliant.
  • Even the British Prime Minister Tony Blair designed his 10 Downing Street home through Vastu Shastra; this article appeared in U.S.A January 17 2000.
  • I wish we can build a strong, healthy and successful society with the help of Vastu- Science.

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