FIREFIGHTING IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

 

 

DEFINITION OF FIRE:

 

Fire is a chemical reaction, in which substance (fuel) combines with oxygen. The reaction is exothermic and usually associated with emission of light and smoke.

                     

ELEMENTS OF FIRE

 

                                 Fuel

                                Combustible substance in the form of vapour, Liquid or   incandescent Solid.

                                 Heat

                                A Source of Ignition sufficient to initiate and propagate the Chemical Reaction of Combustion.

                                 Oxygen

                                Oxygen content in atmospheric Air in sufficient proportion to form a combustible Vapour-Air mixture.

 

CHAIN REACTION

For a Fire to be self sustaining, the oxidation process should be self sustaining. The Ignition which triggers the oxidation reaction between one tiny bundle of Oxygen and one tiny bundle of fuel must produce enough energy to trigger oxidation between two more tiny bundles of oxygen and fuel. In this manner, the combustion continues like a Chain Reaction

 

CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE

1. Class “A” fire

2. Class “B” fire

3. Class “C” fire

4. Class “D” fire

5. Fire involving electrical equipment

 

 

 

Class “A” Fire

Ordinary Combustible fire : These are fires involving Solid combustible  materials normally organic in nature (compounds of carbon) in which combustion generally occurs with the formation of glowing amber, where the cooling effect of water is essential for extinguishing the fire. e.g., Wood, Cloth, Paper etc; which leave carbon after combustion

 

Class “B” Fire

Flammable liquid fire: These are the fires involving flammable Liquids or Liquefiable Solids where blanketing effect is essential for extinguishing the fire. e.g., Petroleum products, Solvents, Paints etc

 

Class “C” Fire

Flammable gas fire: These are the fires involving gases or Liquefied gases under pressure where it is necessary to isolate the burning gas at a fast rate with an inert gas, powder or vaporising liquid for extinguishment. e.g., Fuel Gas, Hydrogen, Liquefied Petroleum Gas etc

 

Class “D” Fire

Metal fires: The fires that occur in combustible metals generally called Alkali Metals such as Magnesium, Sodium; Titanium etc. are classified under this class. Specialised techniques, extinguishing agents & equipment are required to control such fires.

Electrical Fires

CLASS OF FIRE

PRINCIPLE OF EXTINGUISHMENT

EXTINGUISHING MEDIA

A

COOLING

WATER

B

STARVATION

FOAM

C

SMOTHERING                             

CARBON-DI-OXIDE

D

INHIBITION OF ACTIVE RADICALS

DRY CHEMICAL POWDER

Electrical Fires: According to latest concepts, the electrical fires do not constitute a particular class. Any fire involving electrical equipment is in fact is a fire of class A, B or C. The normal procedure in such fires is to cut off the electricity and use an extinguishing method appropriate to the burning material. Special extinguishing agents which are non-conductor of electricity and non-damaging to the electrical equipment such as dry chemical powders and carbon di-oxide should be used

Principles of extinguishing fire

The National Building Code (Part 4) – Fire and Life Safety

 

The guidelines for commercial buildings in India with regards to Fire Safety and Fire Fighting are prescribed in The National Building Code - Part 4 (NBC), which deals with the requirements necessary to minimise danger to life and property from fire and adopts an integrated approach.

 

Fire Protection techniques should be, ideally, based on fire characteristics of building materials and elements of structure, and the requirements of the Code should be adopted in total for ensuring a fire safe design and construction of buildings. While the Code prescribes only the minimum standards of fire protection and fire safety of buildings, nothing in the code prohibits adoption of higher standards.

Also, it is necessary for all concerned to comply with all requirements of fire safety as prescribed in fire-related legislative provisions.

 

The code while recognising that panic in a building on fire may be uncontrollable, deals with the potential panic hazards through measures designed to prevent the development of panic. Experience indicates that panic seldom develops even in the presence of potential danger, so long as occupants of buildings are moving towards exits which they can see within a reasonable distance and with no obstruction or undue congestion in the path of travel. However, any uncertainty as to location or adequacy of means of egress, the presence of smoke or fumes and the stoppage of travel towards the exit, such as may occur when one person stumbles and falls on stairs, may be conducive to panic.

Danger from panic is greater when a large number of people are trapped in a confined area.

 

Types of Construction:

The design of any building and the type of materials used in its construction are important factors in making the building resistant to a complete bum-out and in preventing the rapid spread of fire, smoke and fumes, which may otherwise contribute to the loss of lives and property.

The fire resistance of a building or its structural and non-structural elements is expressed in hours against a specified fire load which is expressed in kcal/m2, and against a certain intensity of fire. The fire-resistance tests for structural elements are done in accordance with good practice. The types of construction according to fire resistance are classified into four categories,

·         Type 1 construction

·         Type 2 construction

·         Type 3 construction

·         Type 4 construction

 

The fire resistance ratings for various types of construction for structural and non-structural members are as given in Table 1.

For buildings 15m in height or above non- combustible materials should be used for construction and the internal walls of staircase enclosures should be of brick work or reinforced concrete or any other material of construction with minimum of 2h rating.

 

 

 

Steel Construction

Load bearing steel beams and columns of buildings having total covered area of 500m2 and above shall be protected against failure/ collapse of structure in case of fire. This could be achieved by use of appropriate methodology using suitable fire resistance rated materials along with suppression system.

 

Classification of Buildings Based on Occupancy

All buildings, whether existing or proposed, are classified according to the use or the character of occupancy in one of the following groups:

 

·         Group A Residential

·         Group B Educational

·         Group C Institutional

·         Group D Assembly

·         Group E Business

·         Group F Mercantile

·         Group G Industrial

·         Group H Storage

·         Group J Hazardous

 

The commercial buildings normally fall under Groups D, E and F depending on the nature of commercial buildings. We shall be discussing in detail the provisions in the code for the above groups only

Group D Assembly Buildings:

These include any building or part of building, where number of persons not less than 50 congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes; for example, theatres, motion picture houses, assembly halls, auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, skating rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants, places of worship, dance halls, club rooms, passenger stations and terminals of air, surface and marine public transportation services, recreation piers and stadia, etc.

 

 

 

 

Buildings under Group D are further subdivided as follows:

(a) Subdivision D-1:

This subdivision includes any building primarily meant for theatrical or operatic performances and exhibitions and which has raised stage, proscenium curtain, fixed or portable scenery or scenery loft, lights, motion picture houses, mechanical appliances or other theatrical accessories and equipment, and which is provided with fixed seats for over 1000 persons.

(b) Subdivision D-2:

This subdivision includes any building primarily meant for use as described for subdivision D-1, but with fixed seats up to 1000 persons.

(c) Subdivision D-3:

This subdivision includes any building, its lobbies, rooms and other spaces connected thereto,  primarily intended for assembly of people, but which has no theatrical stage or permanent theatrical and / or cinematographic accessories and has accommodation for 300 persons or more; for eg., dance halls, night clubs, halls for incidental picture shows, dramatic, theatrical or educational presentation, lectures or other similar purposes having no theatrical stage except a raised platform and used without permanent seating arrangement, art galleries exhibition halls, community halls, passenger  terminals and heritage and archeological monuments.

(d)Sub Division D-4:

This subdivision includes any building primarily intended for use as described in subdivision D-3, but with accommodation for less than 300 persons with no permanent seating arrangements.

(e)Sub Division D-5:

This subdivision includes any building or structure, permanent or temporary, meant for assembly of people not covered by subdivisions D-1 to D-4; for eg. grandstands, stadia, amusement park structures, reviewing stands and circus tents.

(f) Subdivision D-6:

This subdivision includes any building for assembly of people provided with multiple services/facilities like shopping, cinema theatres and restaurants, for eg. multiplexes

(g) Subdivision D-7:

The subdivision includes any building or structure permanent or temporary meant for assembly of people not covered by D-1 to D-6, for eg. underground or elevated railways.

 

 

 

Group E Business Buildings:

These include any building or part of a building which is used for transaction of business for keeping of accounts and records and similar purpose, professional establishments, service facilities, etc. city halls, town halls, court houses and libraries shall be classified in this group so far as the principal function of these is transaction of public business and keeping of books and records.

 

Business buildings are further sub-classified as follows:

Subdivision E-1: Offices, banks, professional establishments like offices of architects, engineers, doctors, lawyers and police stations;

Subdivision E-2: Laboratories, research establishments, libraries and test houses;

Subdivision E-3: Computer installations;

Subdivision E-4: Telephone exchanges;

Subdivision E-5: Broadcasting stations and T.V stations

 

Group F Mercantile Buildings:

These include any building or part of a building, which is used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of merchandise, either wholesale or retail.

Mercantile buildings are further sub classified as follows:

Subdivision F-1:

Shops, stores, departmental stores, markets, with area up to 500 m2;

Subdivision F-2:

Shops, stores, departmental stores and markets, with area more than 500 m2;

Subdivision F-3:

Underground shopping centers, storage and service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located in the same building are included under this group.

 

Number and Designation of Fire Zones:

The number of fire zones in a city or area under the jurisdiction of the authority depends upon the existing layout; types of building construction, classification of existing buildings based on occupancy and expected future development of the city or area. In large cities or areas, three fire Zones may be necessary, while in smaller ones, one or two may be adequate.

 

 

The fire zones shall be made use of in land use development plan and are designated as follows:

(a) Fire Zone No. 1,

(b) Fire Zone No. 2, and

(c) Fire Zone No.3

 

Fire Zone No. 1:

This shall comprise areas having residential (Group A), educational (Group B), institutional (Group C), assembly (Group D), small business (Subdivision E-l) and retail mercantile (Group f) buildings or areas which are under development for such occupancies.

Fire Zone No. 2:

This shall comprise business (subdivision E-2 to E-5) and some divisions of industrial buildings except high hazard industrial buildings or areas which are under development for such occupancies.

Fire Zone No. 3:

This shall comprise areas having high hazard industrial buildings. Storage buildings (Group H) and buildings for hazardous uses (Group J) or areas which are under development for such occupancies.

 

General Requirements of All individual Occupancies:

All buildings shall satisfy certain requirements which contribute, individually and collectively, to the safety of life from fire, smoke, fumes and panic arising from these or similar causes. There are, however, certain general principles and common requirements which are applicable to all or most of the occupancies.

 

Maximum Height:

Every building shall be restricted in its height above the ground level and the number of storeys, depending upon its occupancy and the type of construction. The maximum permissible height for any combination of occupancy and types of construction should be necessarily be related to the width of street fronting the building, or floor area ratios and the local fire fighting facilities available

 

Floor Area Ratio:

The comparative floor area ratios for different occupancies and types of construction are given in the following table

 

 

Open Spaces:

For high rise buildings, the following additional provisions of means of access to the building are ensured

(a) The width of the main street on which the building abuts shall not be less than 12m and one end of this street shall join another street not less than 12m in width;

(b) The road shall not terminate in a dead end; except in the case of residential building, up to a height of 30m.

(c) The compulsory open spaces around the building shall not be used for parking; and

(d) Adequate passageway and clearances required for fire fighting vehicles to enter the premises shall be provided at the main entrance; the width of such entrance shall be not less than 4.5 m. If an arch or covered gate is constructed, it shall have a clear head-room of not less than 5m.

 

Mixed Occupancy:

When any building is used for more than one type of occupancy in so far as fire safety is concerned, it conforms to the requirements for the occupancies of higher hazard. Unless the high hazard area is separated by separating walls of 4h rating, the occupancies shall not be treated individually.

 

Openings in separating Walls and Floors:

At the time of designing the openings in separating walls and floors, particular attention is paid to all such factors as will limit fire spread through these openings and maintain fire rating of the structural member.

·         For types 1 to 3 construction, a doorway or opening in a separating wall on any floor shall be limited to 5.6 m2 in area with a maximum height/ width of 2.75 m. Every wall opening shall be protected with fire-resisting doors having the fire rating of not less than 2h in accordance with accepted standard. All openings in the floors shall be protected by vertical enclosures extending above and below such openings, the walls of such enclosures and all openings therein being protected with a fire-resisting assembly

·         For Type 4 construction, openings in the separating walls or floors shall be fitted with 2 hr fire-resisting assemblies.

o   Openings in walls or floors which are necessary to be provided to allow passages of all building services like cables, electrical wirings, telephone cables, plumbing pipes etc. shall be protected by enclosure in the form of ducts/ shafts having a fire resistance of not less than 2 hr.  The inspection door for electrical shaft/ducts shall be not less than 2hrs. and for other services shafts/ducts, the same shall have fire resistance not less than 1hr.

o   Medium and low voltage wiring running in shafts/ducts shall either be armoured type or run through metal conduits. Further, the space between the conduits pipes and the walls/slabs shall be filled in by a filler material having fire resistance rating of not less than one hour.

 

Vertical Opening:

Every vertical opening between the floors of a building should be suitably enclosed or protected as necessary, to provide the following:

(a) Reasonable safety to the occupants while using the means of egress by preventing spread of fire smoke, or fumes through vertical openings from floor to floor to allow occupants to complete their use of the means of egress. Further, it should be ensured to provide a clear height of 2100mm in the passage/ escape path of the occupants.

(b) Limitation of damage to the building and its contents.

 

Fire Stop or Enclosure of Openings:

Where openings are permitted, they shall not exceed three-fourth the area of the wall in case of an external wall, and they shall be protected with fire resisting assemblies or enclosure, having a fire resistance equal to that of the wall or floor in which these are situated. Such assemblies and enclosures shall also be capable of preventing the spread of smoke or fumes through the openings so as to facilitate the safe evacuation of building in case of a fire.

 

Electrical installations:

For requirements regarding electrical installations from the point of view of fire safety, reference may be made to good practice

 

Air-conditioning and Ventilation:

·         Air-conditioning and Ventilation System are so installed and maintained as to minimise the danger of spread of fire, smoke or fumes from one floor to other from outside to any occupied building or structure.

·         Air-conditioning and ventilating systems circulating air to more than one floor or fire area shall be provided with dampers designed to close automatically in case of fire and thereby preventing spread of fire or smoke and shall be in accordance with the accepted standards. Such a system shall also be provided with automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire, unless arranged to remove smoke from a fire, in which case these shall be designed to remain in operation.

·         Air-conditioning system serving large places of assembly (over 1000 persons), large departmental stores or hotels with over 100 rooms in a single block shall be provided with effective means for preventing circulation of smoke through the system in case of a fire in air filters or from other sources drawn into the systems, and shall have smoke sensitive devices for actuation in accordance with the accepted standards.

·         From the fire safety point of view, it is necessary to provide separate air handling units for the various floors so as to avoid the hazards rising from spread of fire and smoke through the air-conditioning ducts. The requirements of air-conditioning ducts shall be in accordance with good practice.

·         For normal operation, air changes schedule shall be as given in Part-8 Building Services, section 3 Air-conditioning, heating and mechanical ventilation.

 

Smoke Venting:

·         Smoke venting facilities for safe use of exits in windowless buildings, underground structures, large area factories, hotels and assembly buildings (including cinema halls) should be automatic in action, with manual controls in addition.

·         Natural draft smoke venting shall utilise roof vents or vents in walls at or near the ceiling level; such vents shall be normally open, or, if closed, shall be designed for automatic opening in case of fire, by release of smoke sensitive devices.

·         Where smoke venting facilities are Installed for purposes of exit safety,  these shall be adequate to prevent dangerous accumulation of smoke during the period of time necessary to evacuate the areas served, using available exit facilities with a margin of safety to allow for unforeseen contingencies. It is recommended that smoke exhaust equipment should have a minimum capacity of 12 air changes per hour. Where mechanical venting is employed, it shall be fire safe.

·         The discharge apertures of all natural draft smoke vents shall be so arranged as to be readily accessible for opening by Fire Service personnel.

·         Power operated smoke exhausting systems shall be substituted for natural draft vents only with permission from authorities

 

Additional precautions:

In addition to the factors covered above there are certain aspects, applicable to particular occupancies only, which may affect the spread of fumes and thus the safe evacuation of the building in case of fire. Some such aspects are:

(a) Interior finish and decoration;

(b) Seating aisles, railings, turnstiles and revolving doors in places of assembly;

(c) Service equipment and storage facilities in buildings other than storage buildings; and

(d) Hazards on stage, in waiting spaces, projection booths, etc, in theatres and cinemas.

 

 

 

Specific Requirements for Group-D Occupancies:

 

Fire Detection/Extinguishing System:

Canteens in auditoriums pose substantial fire and life safety hazards and are not recommended to be located in the basements. In any case they must be sprinkled to take care of any fire hazard.

 

Exit facilities:

Every place of assembly, every tier of balcony, and every individual room used as a place of assembly should have exits sufficient to provide for the total capacity thereof as per the general requirements from buildings as mentioned above. More specific exit requirements are as follows:

 

·         Door width for assembly buildings shall not be less than 2000 mm.

·         Every place of assembly of subdivision D-1 shall have at least four separate exits as remote from each other as practicable.

·         Every place of assembly, of subdivision D-2, shall have at least two separate exits as remote from each other as practicable and if of capacity over 600 at least 3 exits shall be provided with each exits not less than 2000mm width.

·         Clear aisles not less than 1.2m in width shall be formed at right angles to the line of seating in such number and manner that no seat shall be more than seven seats away from an aisle. Rows of seats opening to an aisle at one end only shall have not more than seven seats.

·         Under the conditions, here all these aisles do not directly meet the exit doors, cross-aisles shall be provided parallel to the line of seating so as to provide direct access to the exit, provided that not more than one cross aisle for every 10 rows shall be required. The width of cross-aisles shall be minimum of 1 m. Steps shall not be placed in aisles to overcome differences in levels, unless the gradient exceeds 1 in 10.

·         The fascia of boxes, balconies and galleries shall have substantial railings not less than 1000mm high above the floor. The railings at end of aisles extending to the fascia shall be not less than 1100mm high for the width of the aisle or 1200mm high at the foot of steps.

·         Cross aisles except where the backs of seats on the front of the aisle project 600mm or more above the floor of the aisle shall be provided with railings not less than 900mm high.

·         No turnstiles or other devices to restrict the movement of persons shall be installed in any place of assembly in such a manner as to interfere in any way with the required exit facilities.

·         In theatres and similar places of public assembly where persons are admitted to the building at a time when seats are not available for them are allowed to wait in a lobby or similar place until seats are available, such use of lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the required clear width of exits. Such waiting shall be restricted to areas separated from the exit ways by substantial permanent partitions or fixed rigid railing not less than 105cm high. Exits shall be provided for such waiting spaces on the basis of 1 person for each 0.3 m2 of waiting space area. Such exits shall be in addition to exits specified for the main auditorium area and shall conform in construction and arrangement to the general rules of exit given above.

·         No display or exhibit shall be so installed or operated as to interfere in any way with access to any required exit, or with any required exit sign.

·         All displays or exhibits of combustible material or construction and all booths and temporary construction in connection therewith shall be so limited in combustibility or protected as to avoid any undue hazard of fire which might endanger occupants before they have opportunity to use the available exits, as determined by the authority.

·         Places of assembly in buildings of other occupancy may use exits common to the place of assembly and the other occupancy, provided the assembly area and the other occupancy are considered separately, and each has exits sufficient to meet the requirements of the code.

·         Exits shall be sufficient for simultaneous occupancy of both the places of assembly and other parts of the building, unless authority determines that the simultaneous occupancy will not occur.

·         For any place of assembly under subdivision D-1, at least half the required means of exit shall lead directly outdoors or through exit ways completely separated from exits serving other parts of the building.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lighting:

No open flame lighting devices shall be used in any place of assembly, except in the following cases:

(a) Where necessary for ceremonial purposes, the enforcing authority may permit open flame lighting under such restrictions as are necessary to avoid danger or ignition of combustible materials or injury to occupants.

(b) Candles may be used on restaurant tables if securely supported on non combustible bases and so located as to avoid danger of ignition of combustible materials.

(c) Open flame devices may be used on stages where they are a necessary part of theatrical performance, provided adequate precautions, satisfactory to the authority are taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials.

 

Additional Precautions:

·         The decoration of places of assembly shall be of non-flammable materials. Fabrics and papers used for such purpose shall be treated with an effective flame retardant material. Stage settings made of combustible materials shall likewise be treated with fire retardant materials of class 1 flame spread.

·         Seats in places of assembly, accommodating more than 300 persons, shall be securely fastened to the floor except in restaurants, night clubs and other occupancies where fastening to the floor may not be practicable, provided that in the area used for seating, excluding dance floor, stage, etc, there shall be not more than one seat for each 1.4m2 of floor area and adequate aisles to reach exits shall be maintained at all times.

·         All seats in balconies and galleries shall be securely fastened to the floor, except that in nailed-in enclosures like boxes with level floors and having not more than 14 seats the seats need not be fastened.

·         The spacing of rows of seats from back to back shall be neither be less than 850mm nor less than 700mm plus the sum of the thickness of the back and the inclination of the back. There shall be a space of not less than 350mm between the back of one seat and the front of the seat immediately behind it as measured between plumb lines.

·         Rooms containing high pressure boilers, refrigerating machinery other than domestic refrigerator type, large transformers or other service equipments subject to possible explosion shall not be located directly under or adjacent to required exits. All such rooms shall be effectively cut off from other parts of the building and provided with adequate vents to the outer air.

·         All rooms or areas used for storage of any combustible material or equipment, or for painting, refinishing, repair or similar purposes shall be effectively cut off from assembly areas or protected with a standard system of automatic sprinklers. They shall be located away from staircases.

·         The stage roof of every theatre using movable scenery or having a motion picture screen of highly combustible construction shall have a ventilator or ventilators in or above it, operable from the stage floor by hand and also opening by fusible links or some other approved automatic heat/smoke actuated device, to give a free opening equal to at least one-eighth the area of the floor of the stage.

·         Every place of assembly in which projection of motion pictures by light is made shall have the projection apparatus enclosed in a fire-resisting fixed booth, except that such booths shall not be required where no nitrocellulose motion picture film is used.

·         Automatic smoke vents actuated by smoke detectors shall be installed above the auditorium or theatres, including motion picture houses, with vent area equal to not less than 3.1/3% of the floor area of the auditorium, including the floor areas of all balconies, galleries, boxes and tiers.

·         It may be desirable to provide a large number of small vents rather than a small number of large vents.

 

Exception and Deviation:

·         Where boilers or central heating plants using liquid or solid fuels are located at grade level, these shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a separating wall with protected openings.

·         Gymnasiums,   indoor   stadiums   and similar occupancies may have floors/ running   tracks of   wood,   cinder, synthetic or un-protected steel or iron.

·         The underside of continuous steel deck grandstands when erected outdoors need not be fire protected when occupied for public toilets.

 

 

 

Specific Requirements for Group-E Occupancies:

In addition to the general requirements specified for type of construction and occupancy group and exit requirements, the following requirements should also be complied with

 

Exit Facilities:

Following requirements shall be complied with in addition to general exit requirements:

·         In case of mezzanines or balconies open to the floor below, or other unprotected vertical openings between floors, the population of the mezzanine or other subsidiary floor for level shall be added to that of the main floor the purpose of determining the required exits, provided, however, that in no case shall the total number of exit units be less than that required if all vertical openings were enclosed.

·         Not less than two exits shall be provided for every floor, including basements occupied for office purposes or uses incidental thereto.

 

Additional Requirements:

·         The handling and use of gasoline, fuel oil and other flammable liquids shall not be permitted, unless such use and handling complies with appropriate regulation.

·         Every boiler room or room containing a central heating plant using solid or liquid fuel shall be separated from the rest of the building by a separating wall. Every boiler room or room containing a central heating plant, which burns gas as a fuel shall be adequately separated from the rest of the building.

 

Exception and deviations:

Basements used only for storage, heating or any other service equipment shall conform to exit requirements for Group H occupancies in all respects.

 

Specific Requirements for Group-F Occupancies:

In addition to the general requirements specified for type of construction and occupancy group and exit requirements, the following requirements should also be complied with

 

Mixed Occupancy:

No dwelling unit shall have its sole means of exit through any mercantile occupancy in the same building except in the case of a single family unit where the family operates the store.

 

Exit Facilities:

In addition to the provisions of exit facilities for general buildings, the following requirements should be complied with:

·         In the case of mezzanines or balconies open to the floor below, or other unprotected vertical openings between floors, the population or areas of the mezzanine or other subsidiary floor level shall be added to that of the main floor for the purpose of determining the required exits, provided, however, that in no case shall the total number of exit units be less than that required if all vertical openings were enclosed.

·         At least two separate exits shall be accessible from every part of every floor, including basements; such exits shall be as remote from each other as practicable and so arranged as to be reached by different paths of travel in different directions, except that a common path of travel may be permitted for the first 15m from any point.

 

Additional Precautions

·         Hazardous areas of mercantile occupancies shall be segregated or protected suitably.

·         In self-service stores, no checkout stand or associated railings or barriers shall obstruct exits or required aisles or approaches thereto.

·         Open-air mercantile operations, such as open-air markets, gasoline filling stations, roadside stands for the sale of a farm produce and other outdoor mercantile operations shall be so arranged and conducted as to maintain free and unobstructed ways of travel at all times to permit prompt escape from any point of danger in case of fire or other emergency, but no dead- ends in which persons might be trapped due to display stands, adjoining buildings, fences, vehicles or other obstructions.

·         If mercantile operations are conducted in roofed over areas, these shall be treated as mercantile buildings, provided canopies over individual small stands to protect merchandise from the weather shall not be construed to constitute buildings for the purpose of code.

 

Exception and deviation:

Any mercantile occupancy, where goods of a highly hazardous nature are pre-dominant, shall be considered under Group-J occupancy

 

 

 

 

 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

Different components of Fire Protection System in Commercial Buildings include:

 

i.                                             Pump House equipments and accessories.

ii.                   MCC and related electrical works

iii.                 Wet riser cum down comer system along with Yard Hydrants

iv.                 Automatic sprinkler system

v.                   Analogue addressable fire detection and alarm system.

vi.                 Portable first aid fire extinguishers

vii.               Photo luminescent safety signage

 

Pump House Equipments and Accessories

 

The Pumps required for a common commercial structure include

i.                     Main Pump

ii.                   Sprinkler Pump

iii.                 Common standby pump

iv.                 Common jockey pump set

 

Main Pump:

171 Cum/hr. electrically driven horizontal centrifugal, single stage (Split Case type) Main Pump at 105 MWC and 2500 rpm with necessary accessories like providing and fixing bronze impeller, stainless steel shaft and mechanical seal along with anti-vibration mounting and flexible connections at discharge end of pipes, coupling, coupling guard and base plate for pump, fabricated mild steel channel with foundation bolts, etc as per fire service requirement. It shall be suitable for automatic in operation as per TAC regulation. Pump shall have electrical motor of adequate KW/HP suitable for Electric supply 415V, 50 Hz, 3Ph.

 

Sprinkler Pump:

171 Cum/hr. electrically driven horizontal centrifugal, single stage (Split Case type) Sprinkler Pump at 105 MWC and 2500 rpm with necessary accessories like providing and fixing bronze impeller, stainless steel shaft and mechanical seal along with anti-vibration mounting and flexible connections at discharge end of pipes, coupling, coupling guard and base plate for pump, fabricated mild steel channel with foundation bolts, etc as per fire service requirement. It shall be suitable for automatic in operation as per TAC regulation. Pump shall have electrical motor of adequate KW/HP suitable for Electric supply 415V, 50 Hz, 3Ph.

 

Common Standby pump:

171 Cum/hr. diesel engine driven horizontal centrifugal single stage (Split case type ) common Standby Pump at 105 MWC  and 1800 rpm with all necessary accessories like providing and fixing bronze impeller, stainless steel shaft and mechanical seal along with anti-vibration mounting and flexible connections at discharge end of pipes, coupling, gear box, base plate for pump, fabricated mild steel channel with  foundation bolts etc.,  It includes providing  and  fixing fuel oil tank (capacity as per TAC requirements) with supports and necessary pipe works for diesel engine, battery and battery charger to be connected to control panel of diesel engine and exhaust silencer including necessary pipe work and lagging, etc., and shall be automatic in operation with diesel engine control panel with 24V DC storage battery & its battery charger with required Ampere - hour rating,  terminal box (2 nos. of 12 volts), cooling water line for engine with  required pipes/valves/fittings etc., as per TAC  including all associated electrical works There should be proper interlocking arrangement  between main and diesel engine pumps.

 

Common jockey pump set:

10.8 Cum/hr. electrically driven horizontal centrifugal (End suction type) common Jockey pump set for wet riser cum down comer and sprinkler system at 10.5 Kg/sq cm & 2900rpm with all necessary accessories like bronze impeller, stainless steel shaft and mechanical seal along with anti-vibration mounting pad and flexible connections at discharge end of the pipes etc. and shall be automatic in operation. Pump shall have electrical  motor of adequate H.P. suitable for electric supply material, piping, fittings, installation, minor civil works, etc.,

 

Other items:

i. C.I sluice valve PN 1.6 non-rising stem type conforming to IS:14846. (of dia 200,150, 100,80,65 mms conforming to design)

 

ii. Non-return valve PN 1.6 conforming to IS:5312 (of dia 200,150,65 mms conforming to design)

 

iii. Suction Strainer for suction pipeline of fire pumps inside the common  sump. It shall be inclusive of matching flanges along with required  bolts, nuts , gaskets etc.,

 

iv. Y type strainer ( of dia 200, 80mms conforming to design)

 

v. M.S Class B  piping as per IS : 1239 / IS : 3589 (6.35 mm thick ) above ground piping with necessary flanges & fittings such as  elbows, tees and painting and supports (of dia 250, 200, 150, 100,80, 65,25 mms confirming to design)

 

vi. Pressure gauge (0-14 Kg/cm2) with required fittings and accessories

 

vii. Pressure switch (0-15 Kg/cm2) with required fittings and accessories

 

viii. Fire Brigade inlet - 4 way collecting head to the fire fighting water  tank from fire service vehicles as per local  fire  service department standard / requirement.

 

ix. Air vessel 250mm dia 900mm high with 25mm inlet, 25mm drain,  25mm dia connection for air release valve including legs, painting with red oxide primer and finished with fire red enamel paint. It shall  be inclusive of all relevant pipes, valves, specials up to pump header  and other accessories as per local  fire service department standard / requirement.

 

x. Underground pipe trenches of size 800mm width x 1500mm depth with brick wall of 230mm thick and cover slab of 150mm thick.

 

xi. M.S. angles / channel of 8mm thick  with necessary  fixing arrangements, welding, grouting etc., for pipe  supports in  trenches / inside the building wall faces / ceiling.

Sprinkler Pump System

MCC & RELATED ELECTRICAL WORKS:

1. 1.1 KV grade  XLPE insulated   FRLS armoured  cable aluminium conductor, with GI strip armour  to be laid on with wall/ceiling /trench /cable rack with proper clamping, cable identification tags, double compression cable glands and lugs, etc. as per the relevant IS standards.  (3c x 120 sqmm, 3c x 35 sqmm, 3c x 6 sqmm, 4c x 10 sqmm, 7c x 2.5 sqmm Copper control cable)  

 

2. End termination  for 1.1KV  cables  with double compression type cable  gland  and  heavy  duty  tinned copper cable sockets as per the relevant IS standards .

It shall be inclusive  of all  sundry  materials like adhesive  tape , PVC sleeves , bolts  and  nuts, washers etc. including   plugging unused  holes.  (3c x 120 sqmm,      

3c x 35 sqmm ,3c x 6 sqmm,4c x 10 sqmm, 7c x 2.5 sqmm Copper control cable)  

           

3. Installation, testing and commissioning of 16 SWG MS Powder coated ladder type cable trays fabricated out of CRCA sheet steel with necessary cross arms, couplers, bends, GI strips etc.  (150 mm wide 75mm depth, 450 mm wide 75mm depth)

 

4. Supply, installation, testing and commissioning of Fire fighting MCC with Aluminium bus bar as per the relevant IS standards / Requirements of TAC  and local fire service department.  The complete board shall be manufactured to meet the requirements of  the statutory authorities.

 

5. Supply, installation, testing and commissioning of automatic level controllers to switch ON / OFF the pump automatically as per the preset level of the tank / sump.

 

6. Supply, installation, testing and commissioning of push button station for switching ON / OFF of the pumps for remote control. The push button shall be installed in

suitable sheet steel enclosure with required accessories, hardware etc for complete installation. 

 

MCC Panel

WET RISER CUM DOWN RISER SYSTEM ALONG WITH YARD HYDRANT

1. 900 lpm (54 Cum/hr.) electrically driven mono block centrifugal terrace level pump at 3.5 Kg/Sqcm and 2900 rpm with all necessary accessories and shall be automatic

 

2. Construction of terrace level pump foundation along with pump shed of size 3m x 3m x 3m.

 

3. 63mm dia oblique type, Single headed yard hydrant, gunmetal conforming to IS:5290.

 

4. 63mm dia oblique type, single headed hydrant, gunmetal, fire escape hydrant conforming to IS:5290.

 

5. 16 SWG MS Pedestal mounted type hose boxes with front glass and key to accommodate two hoses of 15m long and one branch pipes with nozzle.

 

6. 16 SWG MS Wall mounted type hose boxes with front glass and key to accommodate two hoses of 15m long, hose reel and one branch pipes with nozzle.

 

7. Reinforced rubber lined hose with  gunmetal  coupling of 63mm dia, conforming toIS:636 & IS:903 respectively and as per the requirement of local fire service department. 15 m  long (For fire escape hydrants) 15 m  long (For yard  hydrants)

 

8. Gunmetal branchpipe with nozzle conforming to IS:903 & as per the requirement of local  fire service department.

 

9. Hose reel with 19mm rubber hose and 25mm dia globe valve conforming to IS:884 & as per the requirement of local  fire service department.

 

10. C.I. Butterfly valve PN 1.6 Hand lever operated, wafer ends conforming to BS:5155 with chamber. 150 mm dia

 

11. C.I sluice valve PN 1.6 non-rising stem type conforming to IS:14846.150 mm  dia

100 mm dia

 

12. Non-return valve PN 1.6 conforming to IS:5312 150 mm  dia100 mm dia

 

13. M.S class B piping as per IS : 1239 / IS:3589 (6.35mm thick). The pipes complete with necessary specials such as tees, bends, flanges, reducers, etc. Painting of pipe with a coat of primer and two coats of synthetic enamel paint of approved colour / make for aboveground piping and coating & wrapping for underground piping as per the  IS standards and local fire service department requirement complete including supply and installation of pipe supports, fasteners etc.,

 

13.1Underground piping with necessary flanges & fittings such as elbows, tees and providing and fixing anchor blocks in PCC 1:2:4 at all bends, tees, along with pipe coating and wrapping of underground pipes with `PYPKOTE' 4mm thick conforming to IS : 10221 / AWWA C 203. 150 mm dia 80 mm dia

13.2Above ground piping with necessary flanges & fittings such as elbows, tees and Painting, supports and Orifice plates if any necessary for the hydrant system complete

as per the requirement of  fire service department.  150 mm  dia 100 mm  dia 80 mm  dia 25 mm  dia

 

14. Gun metal Air release valve - 25mm dia

15. Pressure gauge ( 0 - 14 Kg/cm2) at terrace level pump

16. Pressure switch ( 0 - 15 Kg/cm2) at terrace level pump

17. Fire Brigade Inlet-  4  Way

18. Excavation and backfilling for U/G piping.

19. RCC hume pipes confirming to IS : 458 (NP-2 type) 300 MM dia

Fire Fighting Valves

 

 

 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM

1. M.S Class B piping as per IS : 1239 /IS:3589 (6.35mm thick). The pipes being suspended from ceilings by using hi-tech supports complete with necessary specials such as tees, bends, flanges, reducers, etc.  painting of pipe with a coat of primer and two coats of synthetic enamel paint of approved colour / make for aboveground piping and coating &  wrapping for underground piping  as per the  TAC / IS standards and local fire  service department requirement complete including supply and  installation of pipe supports, fasteners etc., Above ground piping with necessary flanges & fittings such as elbows, tees and Painting, supports and Orifice plates if any necessary for the sprinkler system complete as per the requirement  of local fire service department. 150 mm  dia 100 mm  dia 80 mm  dia 65 mm  dia 50 mm  dia 40 mm  dia 32 mm  dia 25 mm  dia

 

2. Quartzoid bulb type Sprinkler of 15mm nominal size to operate at 68°C temperature without rosette plate. Upright type

 

3. Sprinkler installation control valve (Alarm valve) of 150 mm dia comprising of a mains gate valve, in and out pressure gauge, water motor gong, test connection of adequate size with valve and other accessories complete as per the TAC regulations.

 

4. M.S. cabinet (size 600x450x150mm) fabricated from 16 gauge M.S sheet with full front glass door and locking arrangement with suitable shelves for keeping 24 nos. spare sprinklers and one no. spanner properly fixed.  Cabinet painted with enamel paint of approved shade.

 

5. Supply of Spare Sprinkler heads - 68° C Rating - Upright type

 

6. Drain valve of 25mm dia as per IS standards.

 

7. 4 way fire brigade inlet for sprinkler system feeder.

 

8. C.I. Sluice valve PN 1.6 Non-rising stem type conforming to IS:14846 for above ground piping.150 mm dia 100 mm dia

 

9. C.I. Non-return valve conforming to IS:5312 150 mm dia 100 mm dia

 

10. Flow switches for sprinkler system piping. Flow switch shall have a paddle made of flexible material of the width to fit within the pipe bore. The terminal box shall be mounted over the paddle/ pipe through a connecting socket. The switch shall be potential free in either NO or NC position as required. The switch shall be able to trip and make /break contact on the operation of a single sprinkler head. The terminal box shall have connections for wiring to the Fire alarm panel. The seat shall be of stainless steel. The flow switch shall have IP : 55 protections. The flow switch shall work at a minimum flow rate of 40 lpm. Further, it shall have a 'Retard' to compensate for linear leakage or intermittent flows. It shall be UL / FM approved make for sprinkler system operation. For 150 mm dia Sprinkler piping

 

11. C.I. Butterfly valve PN 1.6 Hand lever operated, wafer ends conforming to BS:5155. 150mm dia

 

12. Excavation and backfilling for U/G piping.

 

13. RCC hume pipes conforming to IS: 458 (NP-2 type). 300 mm dia

 

14. Gun metal air release valve - 25 mm dia

 

Sprinkler Bulbs

 

 

 

ANALOGUE ADDRESSABLE TYPE FIRE DETECTION & ALARM SYSTEM

 

1. Microprocessor controlled Analogue Addressable 09 loop Main fire alarm panel with 09 loops, PC , Printer interface and Repeater interfaces Standby Battery (SMF) for 48 hrs normal operations and half an hour alarm condition. The panel shall include provision for 15 nos. control modules for PA system interface.

 

2. Analogue Addressable Optical Smoke Detector with base.

 

3. Analogue addressable Heat detector (fixed temperature) with base.

 

4. Analogue Addressable type Manual Call Point with monitor module (push button type)

 

5. Analogue Addressable Electronic Hooter (Addressable Loop Powered Sounder) with control module

 

6. Short Circuit Isolator 7 75 x 75 x 75 mm size PVC Junction box having knockout on all four sides

 

7. Addressable input modules for sprinkler system flow switches.

 

8. Annealed tin-copper (ATC) conductor,  PVC sheathed, unarmoured, FRLS cable.

          -----------------Size 2C X 1.5 sq.mm

 

9. PVC conduits (19mm dia) for fire alarm cables

 

10. Metal conduits where conduits are not concealed in walls /slab of following with necessary clamps, fixing accessories all at regular intervals, minor civil works, etc.,

32 mm dia 25 mm dia 19 mm dia

 

11. Supply and laying of 25 mm wide PVC casing & capping including bends, collars and all other fixing accessories on wall / ceiling.

 

 

 

PORTABLE FIRST AID FIRE EXTINGUISHER    

 

1. Dry chemical powder type cylindrical shape fire extinguisher with fixing hangers, hose, brackets, screws to required size etc., complete as per IS:2171  - wall mounted type.5 Kg. Capacity

 

2. CO2 type cylindrical shape fire extinguisher with fixing hangers, hose, brackets, screws to required size etc.,complete as per IS:2878 - wall mounted type.

4.5 Kg. Capacity

 

3. ABC type fire extinguisher with fixing hangers, hose, brackets, screws to required size etc., complete as per IS:13849:1993  -Wall mounted type 5 Kg. Capacity

2Kg.

 

4. Mechanical foam type fire extinguishers of 9 lit capacity        with fixing hangers, hose, brackets, screws to  required size etc., complete as per IS:10204  -Wall mounted type

 

5. Mechanical type fire engines, foam type extinguishers with fixing hangers, hose, brackets, screws & trolley as per IS:13386 - Trolley mounted type - 50 litres capacity.

 

6. 4 Nos. of 9 litres capacity round bottom sand buckets along with bucket stand as per local fire officer's standards.

Portable Fire Extinguishers

 

PHOTOLUMINESCENT SAFETY SIGNAGES

The following descriptive photo luminescent Green or Red colour safety signage in different sizes / graphics / colours / texts can be made according to the standards accepted by the local Fire service department.

 

i.                     Fire hydrant & Hose reel - with symbol.

ii.                   Fire extinguisher - with symbol.

iii.                 Arrow downwards + Running man + Emergency exit - with symbol.

iv.                 Arrow upwards + Running man + Emergency exit - with symbol.

v.                   Arrow + Running man + Emergency exit - with symbol.

vi.                 In case of fire  Do not use Lift  Use Stair - with symbol

vii.               Fire alarm panel - with symbol.

viii.             In case of fire Break the glass - with Manual call point symbol

ix.                 Emergency Exit- with symbol.

x.                   Alarm valve - with symbol.

 

Photo Luminescent Signage

 

 

 

CASE STUDY ON FIRE – FIGHTING IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

 

Details of Commercial Building

·         Name : Tata Consultancy Services, Quadra II

·         Name of Developer : Kumar Builders

·         Location : Opp. Magarpetta City, Hadapsar, Pune

·         Details: Ground + 4 storied building with approximately 8,500sqft carpet area for every floor. Ground floor is allotted for reception area, admin department, kitchen and major area for parking.

 

Observations

·         Four nos. dry hydrants 200mm dia

·         Two staircases on opposite ends of the building – main staircase and fire exit staircase

·         Main staircase near the lift well

·         Alarm panel is located near the main staircase on all floors and the centralized alarm monitoring system is located on the ground floor and is monitored manually 24 x 7

·         Covered car parking area has sprinklers at 2.2m intervals fed by a 15mm dia pipe

·         A single sprinkler covers area of 3m diameter when activated

·         Sprinkler sensor resistance set to 70 degree Celsius

·         The jockey pump, sprinkler pump and the main pump have power backed up by separate DG sets to cater to any need

·         All sprinkler lines are painted dark red and are drawn out of a single feeder pipe

·         Every floor is equipped with a dry riser outlet, hose and spray nozzle as per IS specifications

·         Every floor can seat approx 350 associates

·         Fire evacuation plan is prominently displayed at all major points

·         Heat and smoke detectors on every floor (approx 40 nos.)

·         Luminescent signage pasted on the floor and on the walls at the skirting level on all floors

·         Detailed evacuation plan for all floors.

o   Upon alarm trigger all doors automatically open and all security systems (which normally permit entry and exit only by smart card swipe) are disabled.

o   Floor marshals direct all associates outside of the building through pre – determined evacuation routes

o   The floor marshals are also entrusted with the task of evacuating all associates who might have been unaware of the alarm going off (in case associates are in conference rooms)

o   Associates  on every specific floor area have  to assemble at predetermined assembly points where a head count is taken and tallied with the employee attendance at the moment of fire alarm trigger

·         Portable Fire extinguishers are located at all strategic locations and are marked with luminescent signage

·         Fire drills are carried out at least once every 2 months

·         Fire safety audits are held on a half yearly basis

·         Sand buckets are placed near the DG sets

·         All employees are educated about fire fighting techniques and prevention methods during their induction program

·         LPG cylinders used for the canteen are placed in the open air

·         All air conditioning ducts have dampeners which prevent smoke circulation and isolation in case of localised fires.

·         Smoking is not permitted inside the building and there is a separate demarcated zone on the outside of the building for smoking

·         Fire extinguishers catering to ABC type fires are kept near work stations whereas those with dry COtype are placed in the corridors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RELEVANT IS CODES FOR FIRE FIGHTING

 

Indian Standards and Codes

Standard

Topics

Fire Extinguishers

IS: 933:1989

Portable chemical fire extinguishers, foam type (third revision)

IS: 934: 1989

Portable chemical fire extinguishers, soda acid type (fourth revision)

IS: 940: 1989

Portable chemical fire extinguishers, water type (gas cartridge) (third revision)

IS: 2171: 1985

Portable chemical fire extinguishers, Dry Powder (Cartridge type) (third revision)

IS: 2190: 1992

Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of portable first - aid fire extinguisher (third revision)

IS: 2878: 1986

Portable fire extinguishers, carbon dioxide type (second revision)

IS: 4562: 1968

Portable chemical fire extinguishers, foam type, for marine use

IS: 4862: 1986

Portable chemical fire extinguishers, for aircraft.

IS: 4947: 1985

Gas cartridge for use in fire extinguishers (second revision)

IS: 5490

Refills for portable fire extinguishers and chemical fire engines.

Part I: 1977

For soda - acid portable fire extinguishers (first revision)

Part II: 1977

For foam type portable fire extinguishers (first revision)

Part III: 1979

For soda - acid chemical fire engines, 50 litre capacity (first revision)

Part IV: 1979

For foam chemical fire engines, 50 litre capacity (first revision)

IS: 6234: 1986

Portable fire extinguishers water type (stored pressure) (first revision)

IS: 8149: 1976

Functional requirement for twin CO2 fire extinguisher (trolley mounted)

IS: 10204: 1982

Portable fire extinguishers mechanical foam type

IS: 10472: 1983

150 litre capacity chemical fire engine, foam type

IS: 10658: 1983

Higher capacity dry powder fire extinguisher (trolley mounted)

IS: 11108: 1984

Portable fire extinguishers - Halon 1211 type.

Appliances

IS: 942: 1982

Functional requirements for 275 litre/min. portable pump set for fire fighting (second revision)

IS: 943: 1979

Functional requirements for 680 litre/min. trailer pump

IS: 944: 1979

Functional requirements for 1800 litre/min. trailer pump for fire brigade use (second revision)

IS: 946: 1977

Functional requirements for motor fire engine (first revision)

IS: 947: 1985

Functional requirements for towing tender for trailer fire pump for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 948: 1983

Functional requirements for water tender, type "A" for fire brigade use (second revision)

IS: 949: 1985

Functional requirements for emergency (rescue) tender for fire brigade use (second revision)

IS: 950: 1980

Functional requirements for water tender, type "B" for fire brigade use (second revision)

IS: 951: 1987

Functional requirements for crash fire tender for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 954: 1987

Functional requirements for CO2 tender for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 955: 1980

Functional requirements for dry powder tender for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 956: 1975

Functional requirements for rescue tender for fire fields (first revision)

IS: 957: 1987

Control van for the fire brigade use

IS: 2696: 1974

Functional requirements for 1125-l/min. light fire engine (first revision)

IS: 2930: 1980

Functional requirements for hose laying tender for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 3947: 1966

Code of practice for testing, installation and maintenance of marine portable fire appliances.

IS: 5506: 1979

50-ltr capacity chemical fire engine, soda-acid type (first revision)

IS: 5507: 1979

20-ltr capacity chemical fire engine, foam type (first revision)

IS: 5896

Code of practice for selection, operation and maintenance of fire fighting appliances.

Part-I: 1970

Combined, foam, and crash tender

Part-III: 1975

Turntable ladder.

IS: 6067: 1983

Functional requirements for water tender type-X for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 6070: 1983

Code of practice for selection, operation and maintenance of trailer fire pumps portable pumps, water tender and motor fire engines (first revision)

IS: 7577: 1986

Gas testing flame safety lamps (first revision)

IS: 8150: 1976

45-ltr capacity chemical foam for marine engine use.

IS: 10460: 1983

Functional requirements for small foam tender for fire brigade use.

IS: 10999: 1984

Functional requirements for 2000 kg. Dry powder tender for fire brigade use.

Alarm systems and other systems and media

IS: 21775: 1988

Heat sensitive fire detectors for use in automatic electric fire alarm system (second revision)

IS: 2189: 1988

Code of practice for selection, installation and maintenance of automatic fire detection and alarm system (second revision)

IS: 3844: 1989

Code of practice for installation of internal fire hydrants in multi-storey buildings.

IS: 4308: 1982

Dry powder for fire fighting (first revision)

IS: 4861: 1984

Dry powder for fighting fires in burning metals (first revision)

IS: 4989

Foam concentrate (compound) for producing mechanical foam for fire fighting.

Part-I: 1985

Protein foam (second revision)

Part-II: 1984

Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)

Part -III: 1987

Flouro-protein foam

IS: 6382: 1984

Code of practice for design and installation of fixed carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system (first revision)

IS: 7676: 1985

Glossary of terms for fire fighting equipment

IS: 9668: 1990

Code of practice for provision and maintenance of water suppliers for fire fighting.

IS: 9972: 1981

Automatic sprinkler heads.

Accessories, Hoses, Hydrants

IS: 636: 1988

Non-percolating flexible fire fighting delivery hose (third revision)

IS: 884: 1985

First-aid hose reel for fire fighting (first revision)

IS: 901: 1988

Couplings, double male and double female, instantaneous pattern for fire fighting (third revision)

IS: 902: 1992

Suction hose couplings branch pipe, nozzles and nozzle spanner (third revision)

IS: 903: 1984

Fire hose delivery couplings branch pipe, nozzles and nozzle spanner (third revision)

IS: 904: 1983

2-way and 3-way suction collecting heads for fire fighting purposes (second revision)

IS: 905: 1980

Delivery breeching, dividing and collecting, instantaneous pattern, for fire fighting purposes (second revision)

IS: 906: 1988

Branch with revolving head for fire fighting purposes (second revision)

IS: 907: 1984

Suction strainers, cylindrical type for fire fighting purpose (second revision)

IS: 908: 1975

Fire hydrant, stand post type (second revision)

IS: 909: 1992

Underground fire hydrant sluice-value type (third revision)

IS: 910: 1980

Combined key for hydrant, cover and lower valve (second revision)

IS: 926: 1985

Firemen's axe (second revision)

IS: 927: 1981

Fire hook (second revision)

IS: 928: 1984

Fire bells (second revision)

IS: 930: 1977

Wooden extension ladder for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 931: 1973

Wheeled fire escape (first revision)

IS: 937: 1981

Washers for water fittings for fire fighting purposes (second revision)

IS: 939: 1977

Snatch block for use with fibre rope for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 941: 1985

Blower and exhauster for fire fighting (second revision)

IS: 928: 1984

Fire bells (second revision)

IS: 952: 1986

Fog nozzle for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 1941: 1976

Functional requirements for electric motor

Part-I: 1976

Sirens: Part-I AC, 3-phase, 50 Hz, 415 volts type (second revision)

IS: 2097: 1983

Foam-making branch pipe (first revision)

IS: 2298: 1978

Single barrel stirrup pump for fire fighting purposes (second revision)

IS: 2546: 1974

Galvanized mild steel fire bucket (first revision)

IS: 2871: 1983

Branch, pipe, universal fire the fighting purposes (first revision)

IS: 3582: 1984

Basket strainers for fire fighting purpose (cylindrical type) (first revision)

IS: 3614: 1966 Part-I

Fire-check doors: Part-I, Plate metal covered and rolling type.

IS: 3744: 1985

Hose binding machine (first revision)

IS: 4571: 1977

Aluminium extension ladders for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 4643: 1984

Suction wrenches for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 4927: 1992

Unlined flax canvas hose for fire fighting (first revision)

IS: 4928: 1986

Delivery valve for centrifugal fire pump outlet (first revision)

IS: 5131: 1986

Dividing breeching with control, for fire brigade use (first revision)

IS: 5290: 1983

Landing valves (second revision)

IS: 5486: 1985

Quick-release knife (first revision)

IS: 5505: 1985

Multi-edged rescue axe (non-wedging) (first revision)

IS: 5612:

Hose-clamps and hose-bandages for fire brigade use.

Part-I: 1977

Hose clamps (first revision)

Part-II: 1977

Hose bandages (first revision)

IS: 5714: 1981

Hydrant, stand pipe for fire fighting (first revision)

IS: 6026: 1985

Hand operated sirens (first revision)

IS: 8090: 1976

Coupling, branch pipe, nozzle used in hose reel tubing for fire fighting.

IS: 8096: 1992

Fire beaters.

IS: 8423: 1977

Controlled percolating hose for fire fighting

IS: 8442: 1977

Functional requirements for stand post type water for fire fighting

Fire Safety in Buildings

IS: 1641: 1988

Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): General principles and fire grading and classification (first revision)

IS: 1642: 1989

Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): General Materials & details of construction (first revision)

IS: 1643: 1988

Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general) : General Exposure hazard (first revision)

IS: 1644: 1982

Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): General hazard. (first revision)

IS: 1646: 1982

Code of practice for fire safety of buildings (general): General Electrical installations (first revision)

IS: 1891:

Rubber conveyor and elevator textile belting.

Part 4: 1978

Hygienic belting (first revision)

IS: 2726: 1988

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Cotton ginning and pressing (including cotton seed) factories (first revision)

IS: 3016: 1982

Code of practice for fire precautions in welding and cutting operations (first revision)

IS: 3034: 1981

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Electrical generating and distributing stations (first revision)

IS: 3058: 1990

Code of practice for fire safety of buildings: Viscose rayon yarn/staple fibre plants (first revision)

IS: 3079: 1990

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings Cotton textile mills (first revision)

IS: 3181: 1992

Conveyor belts, fire resistant belting for underground mines and such other hazardous applications (second revision)

IS: 3594: 1991

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: General storage and warehousing including cold storages (first revision)

IS: 3595: 1984

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Coal pulverizes and associated equipments (first revision)

IS: 3808: 1979

Method of test for non-combustibility of building materials (first revision)

IS: 6809: 1979

Fire resistance test of structure (first revision)

IS: 3836: 1979

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Jute mills (first revision)

IS: 4226: 1988

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Aluminium/magnesium powder factories (first revision)

IS: 4355: 1977

Fire resistance brattice cloth (first revision)

IS: 4886: 1991

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Tea factories (first revision)

IS: 5509: 1980

Fire retardant plywood (first revision)

IS: 6329: 1971

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings: Saw Mills and woodworks.

IS: 7820: 1975

Method of test for ignition temperatures

IS: 8757: 1978

Glossary of terms associated with fire safety

IS: 9109: 1979

Code of practice for fire safety of industrial buildings, paint and varnish factories.

IS: 11457:

Code of practice for safety of chemical industries: Part-I

Part-I: 1985

Rubber and plastic.

IS: 11460: 1985

Code of practice for fire safety of libraries and archives.

IS: 11871: 1986

Methods for determinations of flammability and flame resistance of textile fabrics.

IS: 11884: 1986

Fire-resistant brattice sheeting made from unsupported plastics.

IS: 12307: 1988

Graphic symbols for fire protection.

IS: 12349: 1988

Fire protection safety signs.

IS: 12456: 1988

Fire protection of electronic data processing installations.

IS: 12459: 1988

Fire protection of cable runs.

IS: 12467: 1988

Methods for determination of the ignitability of upholstered composites for seating for furfures by smoker's materials.

IS: 12722: 1989

Textile floor covering - Determination of flame resistance by table test.

IS: 13045: 1991

Fire safety of flour mills.

 

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